Scrapbook of newspaper articles
compiled by Philadelphia Water Department

Index created by
Annie Cheng, PWD Public Education Intern, March 2004

Original scrapbook in
PWD Historical Collection: Accession 2004.014
In this index, last four digits refer to scrapbook page number on which the articles appear.

Annie Cheng spent weeks creating an index to this crumbling, 363-page newspaper clipping scrapbook. The index includes headlines, photograph and illustration titles and captions, and the source of the clipping and date of publication, when known. Some dates do not include a year, but in most cases they can safely be determined by the years of the clippings that surround them. The first 30 or so pages of the scrapbook seem to be a hodgepodge of articles ranging from 1920-1922. A rudimentary table of contents starts on page 27, after which the clippings are more or less chronological. Eventually I hope to load this information into the PWD Historical Collection PastPerfect© Database, at which time it could be pulled out as a searchable Web page that would return all the page numbers on which a keyword appears. Until then, my suggestion for using this very long page is to use your browser's “Find” feature (under the “Edit” tab) to search for specific keywords of interest.

The year headings are approximate, and are meant to serve as a visual clue when scrolling down the page. The following links will jump to specific years.
1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929
Clicking on the year heading will bring you back to the top of the page.
Highlighted listings are links to images. File sizes over 100 kb are noted at the end of the listing.


The History of Philadelphia's Watersheds and Sewers

Compiled by Adam Levine
Historical Consultant
Philadelphia Water Department
    HomeCreek to sewerDown underarchivesmapsAdam LevineLinks



  1. Waterworks Society [?] Convention Here, Phases of Supplying Big Cities Discussed-Apparatus is Shown, Source: Public Ledger, May 16, 1922
  2. Water System for Northeast Phila. Is Planned By Bureau, Council Will Be Asked to Provide $2,000,000 for Project, Big Need Felt, Source: North American, June 10, 1922
  3. Purifying Water Big City Problem, Removal of Bad Tastes and Odors Difficult Task for Chemists, Source: Inquirer, May 20, 1922
  4. Water Pollution Theme of Experts, Modern Filtration Methods Now Vital, Say Convention Delegates, Chlorination Process Highly Successful, Asserts Virginia Speaker, Source: Inquirer, May 12, 1922
  5. Frankford Faces Water Scarcity, Growth Resulting From “L” Expected to Make Present System Inadequate, New Plant Necessary, Bureau Chief Says System Needed Will Be as Great as in West Philadelphia, Source: Public Ledger, June 10, 1922
  6. Water Meter For Home Brewer is The Latest, Chief Davis Asserts That Law Requires All Distilleries to Have One, Source: Inquirer, July, 22


  1. Cartoon: The Aqua Purist, Caption: “…Carleton E. Davis’ name has become indelibly associated with the liquid of life…”, Source: Public Ledger, March 17, 1922
  2. Water Works Bids In, Improvement to System Will Cost About $326,000, Source: Ledger, March 29, 1922
  3. Water-Bureau Engineer Ousted; Neglect Charged, Shawmont Pumping Station Chief Accused of Jeopardizing Supply, Source: Ledger, March 29, 1922
  4. Quits Job to Aid Pinchot, One Municipal Employee Believes Charter Means What it Says, Source: Record, April 18, 1922
  5. City Coal Supply Will Last 90 Days, Chief Davis, of the Bureau of Water, Believes System Can Be Run Until August, Fuel Stored for Plants, Hospitals, Insane Institution and Other Public Places are Well Supplied, Source: Ledger, April 1, 1922
  6. Conference on River, Will Discuss Prevention of Polluting Delaware With Sewage, Source: Inquirer, May 19


  1. Water-Bureau Pay Starts a Dispute, Councilman Hall Says “Soft Snaps” Are Provided for Those “in Right” Source: Ledger, February 13, 1922
  2. Fairmount Dam, Chief Davis’ Report of Satisfactory Conditions Means a Prompt Start on Work, Source not known
  3. Threatens to Oust Civil Service Board, Council Finance Committee Denounces “Red Tape” Methods in Use, Snow Removal Contracts and Salary Increase Incident Furnish Basis for Attack, Source: February 17, 1922
  4. Mayor Asks About Private Water Works, Thinks of Asking Council to Provide for Purchase of the Holmesburg Works, Source: Ledger, February 27, 1922
  5. City May Pay $850,000 for 3 Water Plants, Mayor Proposes Buying Properties in the Northeast and Using City Water, Source: Ledger, March 3, 1922
  6. Gloucester [?] Dry for 10 Hours, Water Supply Fails From 1 o’Clock Last Night to 9 This Morning, Connection Uncomplete, Source not known
  7. Shawmont Official Fired for Neglect, John H. Miller’s Carelessness Jeopardized Plant’s Safety, It is Charged, Source: Inquirer, March 29


  1. [?] Ambitious Projects, Additional Piers, New Bridges and Hospital Betterments Are of Major Importance, Source not known
  2. More Pay for Some Employees, Source not known
  3. Mayor Praises Caven, Water Supply to Be Next Big Enterprise Taken Up, Source: The Record, January 19
  4. Water Main Bursts, Main Line Residents Cut Off From Aqua Pura Supply, Source: Inquirer, October 28
  5. Council Stirred by Water Protest, Bureau’s Per Diem Employees Seek Relief From Only Five Days a Week Work, Say Chief Davis Told Them Council Didn’t Appropriate Enough Money, Source: Inquirer, January 13
  6. Candidates for City Job, Source: Ledger, February 16, 192[?]
  7. 250 New Fireplugs, Medium-Size Hydrants to Deliver 1500 Gallons of Water a Minute, Source: Ledger, January [?], 1922
  8. [?]ping Plant of Council Bursts, Plumbers Held Responsible for Break in Compromising Agreement, Tearing Up of New Pavement Crime Against Taxpayers, Says Committee Head, Source not known
  9. Old Water Works Building Burned, Blaze at Thirty-third Street and Girard Avenue Reported Under Control, Source: Ledger, April 1[?], 1922


  1. [Loan?] Balance Flatly Contradicts Hadley, [?]es Show That Virtually All of $22,000,000 That Has Been Declared “Unencumbered” is Earmarked for Projects Already Begun, Source: Ledger, October 8, 1921
  2. Best Engineer Will Get Big City Job, City’s $4000 Employs to Compete for Headship of Survey Bureau, Source: Ledger, November 29
  3. Von Tagen Joins in Criticism of Civil Service Examination Requirements, Source: Inquirer, November 29
  4. Water Inadequate Tacony Complains, Delegation Sees Mayor and Director Caven; Some Relief Promised, Held Up in Council, Source: North American, [December?] 2, 1920
  5. Director Caven Says Water is Very Bad, Urges More Vigorous Work in Carrying Out Plans for the Disposal of Sewage, Source: Ledger, January 6, 1922


  1. New Schuylkill Dam Test Borings to Be Made Soon, Proposed Fairmount Structure May Be Located on Site of One 100 Years Old-Power Plant is Being Considered-Draught Holes in Body of Operation Will Prevent Mud Collecting, Source: [Ledger?], 1921
  2. Typhoid Carriers, N.J. Health Board Asks Aid in Fighting Epidemic in Burlington County, Appeal Made to Local Authorities to Enforce Strictly State’s Code, Source: Inquirer, September 9, 1921
  3. Higher Water Rates, Clayton and Glassboro Company Fail to Get Consent of Municipal Officials, Source: Inquirer, September 9, 1921
  4. Caven to Rush City Work to Aid Army of Idle, Jobs for Thousands Loom as Director Issues Orders, Source: Ledger, September 26, 1921
  5. Broken Water Main Floods Broad St., Source: Record, October 27, 1921
  6. Caven Makes Five Appointments, Source: Record, December 24
  7. City Acts to Oust Its Water Riv[er], Council Asks City Solicitor for Report on All Private Works, Rates Very High, Source: North American, October 8, 1921


  1. City Pay Increases Are Recommended, Mayor’s Committee Report Favors Raise for 550 Individuals and Scores of Workers, Library Clerks Included, 28 Positions in Commercial Museum and 5 in Mayor’s Office Are Affected, Source: Ledger, April 8, 192[?]
  2. D.S. Kimball Next President of Mechanical Engineers, [?] of Engineering College, Cornell, and H.P. Liversidge, Philadelphia, Among Officers Nominated by American Society for Ensuing Year, Source not known
  3. Tax Rate and City Salaries, Source: Record, April 9, 1921
  4. Charges Politics in Public Works Jobs, W.H. Kreider Says Eligible Lists Are Juggled for Director Caven, Mentions Names, Source: North American, [July] 28, 1922
  5. City Aims to End Bad Taste in Water, Contract Let for Aeration Flume to Release Cases Blamed for Disagreeable Odors, Source: Ledger, September 20, 1921
  6. $800,000 Urged for Fairmount, Mayor Asks Council [to] Strengthen Present S[truc]ture or Erect a New O[?], Source: Inquirer, 1921
  7. Twenty Typhoid Carriers Left by Epidemic, One Held Responsible for Two Outbreaks Involving 68 Cases, Source: Ledger, September 9, 1921


  1. $150,681.60 is Upkeep of [?] Used by City, [?] $1175 Car Shown to Have Cost $2551.32 for Repairs, Gas, Etc., in 1920, [?]ch Cheaper Machine Used at Outlay of $169.50, Council’s Committee on Autos Finds Haphazard Methods Swell Bill for Taxpayers, Source: Ledger, March 27, 1921


  1. [M]ore Says Civil Service Rules Cause Big Losses, Restrictions Hamper Public Works, He Declares, in Proposing Changes, Source: North American, [March] 19, 1921
  2. Mayor Probes Use of City Property, Caven Said to Have Given Him Affidavits Concerning Employees, Source: North American, April 15, 1921
  3. Water Main Breaks, Trolley Car Has Narrow Escape From Plunging in Hole, Source: Inquirer, April 21, 1921
  4. Labor Favoritism Charged to Caven, Jobholders Advanced Unfairly, Says Ex-secretary of Civil Service Commission, Demands Investigation and Wants Pay of “Camouflaged” Employees Stopped, Source: Inquirer, July 28, 1921
  5. City Rents Half of $20,000 Garage at $5520 a Ye[ar], Municipality Gives Ye[AR]ly More Than 25 P[ercent] of Value of Building, Facts Unearthed by Con[?] Sent to President Council, Source: Inquirer, March 31, 19[?]


  1. $100,000 And 18 Years Leak Away at Ritz Hotel Corner, City Repair Gang Causes That Loss to Passersby in the Ten Days It Has Been Impeding Traffic While Trying to Locate Source of Seepage From Water Main, Source: Ledger, March 11, 1921


  1. Pay of City Employees, Source: Ledger, February 1, 1921
  2. City Urged to Give General pay Rise, Municipal Research Bureau Declares Public Employees Are Underpaid, Source: Inquirer, February 2, 1921
  3. More Water Wanted, A Need in Philadelphia That is Common to All Growing Cities, Source: Bulletin, February 25, 1921
  4. Water Pipe, 100 Years Old, Still in Service, Piece of Iron Main Dug Up on Exhibit in Office of Chief Davis, Source: North American, March 8, 1921


  1. Would Use Parkway For Site of 1926 Exposition, Fairmount Park Art Association Presents Plans of Professor Cret, To Beautify River Banks, Chief Object Explained as Desire to Promote Ideas of City Planning, Source not known
    *Note: Plan of Sesqui-Centennial Fair Site on page 12A
  2. Warning to Observe Rules Upon Rubbish, Cleaning Streets Made Difficult by Housekeepers’ Laxity, Says Caven, Source: North American, no date given


  1. No Water Supply Near, Farm House is Burned, Byberry and Holmesburg Companies Have Long Run, Source: Ledger, January 10, 1921
  2. Caven’s Men Must Work, Director Declares Every Man Shall Earn His Full Pay, Source, Ledger, January 13, 1921
  3. Dividing Up Loan Funds, Many Public Improvements Advanced by Committee, Source: Record, January 25, 1921
  4. To Buy Garbage Plant, Council Committee Approves Purchase at $500,000, Source: Record, January 25, 1921


  1. Fairmount Park Blast Stirs City, Water Mains Dynamited on Site of Art Museum, Source: North American, January 8, 1921
  2. Shake-Up In City’s ‘White Wings’ Near, Public Service Asks Caven for Payroll Lists; Stinger Ousted, Source: North American, January 7, 1921
  3. ‘Inefficiency’ Will Mean ‘Get Out,’ Vare-Cunningham-Brown Combination Shocked Out of Its Exultant Mood, Thought Clean-Up Ended, Finds Mayor Has Only to Make Charges a Little Plainer to Clear Payrolls, Source: Ledger, January 7, 1921
  4. Vareites Cave in to Caven on Plant, Council Committee Unanimous for Garbage Bill, Although Some Complain of Haste, Weglein Makes a Protest, Says Reduction Concern “Has Us by Throat”-Vare Men Criticize Furbush, Source: Ledger, January 8, 1921


  1. Waste Reclamation Abandoned by City, Dunlap Says Work, However, May be Undertaken During Summer, Source: Inquirer, January 4, 1921
  2. Praises Water Supply, Construction Company Engineer Says Filtration Cuts Death Rate, Source: Inquirer, January 4, 1921
  3. City’s Health Depends on Water, Says Expert, Source: North American, January 4, 1921
  4. Must Match City Work, Director Caven Warns the Street Cleaning Contractors, Source: Record, January 5, 1921
  5. Water Supply Cut Off, Break in Pipe Floods Cellars Near Fifth and South Streets, Source: Inquirer, February 21, 1921
  6. Civil Service Aids Removed Workers, Commission Ignores Inefficiency Charge and Returns Dismissal Cards to Directors, Halts Mayor’s “Shake-up,” Time, Place and Nature of Poor Service Must be Specified. Vare Men Jubilant, Source: Ledger, January 8, 1921


  1. Council Assails City Hall Secrecy, Roused by Delay in Purchase of Garbage Disposal Plant, Finally Permits Temporary Lease to Speed Municipal Operation, Source: Inquirer, December 29, 1920
  2. Women Clash Over Women For City Hall Vacancies, Whether They Should Demand Places of Dismissed Men is Debated, Source: North American, December 31, 1920
  3. Says City Beats Contractors’ Work, Cleaning of Streets Far More Thorough, Neeson Declares, Refuse of Holiday’s Celebrations Quickly Removed From Thoroughfares, Source: Inquirer, January 3, 1921


  1. Photo: Handling Local Fire Calls, Caption: Briefly talks about the process of receiving fire calls, Source not known
  2. Sue to Get Jobs Back, Three City Employees Bring Action Against Mayor and City Officials, Source: Inquirer, December 29, 1920
  3. Incinerating Plant Rented for $15,000, Council Passes Von Tagen Measure After Battle With Vares, Lease is 30 Days, Source: North American, December 31, 1920


  1. To Return Only One Park, Bureau of City Property Gets Only Independence Square, Source: Record, December 16, 1920
  2. Exempt 834 From Civil Service Rules, Street Cleaning and Garbage Collection Employees Affected, Source: Inquirer, December 24, 1920
  3. Civil Service in Garbage, Commission Refuses to Exempt Men Needed on the Work, Source: Record, December 21, 1920
  4. Vare Streets Criticized, Health Director Says He Found Conditions Insanitary, Source: Ledger, [December] 2[8], 1920
  5. 129 U.S. Water Power Permits Are Sought, Applications Under Federal Act Look Toward Investment of $1,200,000,000, Source: Inquirer, December 27, 1920
  6. Praises Phila. For Parkway Development, Andrew Wright Crawford Terms It Greatest Accomplishment of Last 20 Years, Source: Record, January 3, 1921


  1. City To Sell Its Useless Property, Mayor to Appoint Commission to Inventory Public Holdings No Longer Needed, Source: Ledger, November 3, 1920
  2. Hundreds Lose Vote As Water Main Bursts, Trolleys Blocked Hour While Workers Watch Closing of Polls, Source: Inquirer, November 8, 1920
  3. Mayor Favors New Dam at Fairmount, Two City Pumping Stations Depend Upon Old Structure, Source: North American, October 18, 1920
  4. City Buys Device to Thaw Fireplugs, 7 New Pieces of Apparatus to be Delivered Next Week, 6 Aerial Trucks, Source: J[P]. American, [November] 4, 1920
  5. Davis Heads Fire Bureau, Source: Ledger, December 1920
  6. Pay of City Employees, Source: Ledger, October 29, 1920
  7. Plan City Hall Annex, Council Committee Reports Favorably on Bill Acquiring Ground, Source: Record, December 16, 1920


  1. To Check ‘Illness’ of City Employees, Council Threatens to Withdraw Sick-Leave Privilege Because of Abuse, Kills Motion to Add $1,000,000 to Street Repaving Appropriation, Source: Inquirer, November 27, 1920
    City Puts $121,971 Park Land Award Up to Judges, Source: North American, November 23, 1920
  2. Fairmount Dam in Bad Condition, Mayor Directs a Survey to Be Made-Chief Davis Wants a New Structure, Has Been in Use Since 1872, Federal, State, and City Governments Have Certain Rights in the Schuylkill, Source: Ledger, October 18, 1920
  3. To Extend Water Supply, Contract Awarded for Service Pipes in West Philadelphia, Source: Record, November 16, 1920
  4. Lease of Vare Plant Reported Favorably, Source: Ledger, December 8, 1920
  5. Mayor Backs Sale of Reservoir Site, Sees Lands at Twenty-sixth and Master Streets as Desirable for Housing, To Name Committee to Dispose of Those City Does Not Need, Source: Inquirer, November 3, 1920


  1. Photo: [W]est Children Keep Cool, Source not known
  2. City Awards Contracts, Water System Provides for Certain Needed Improvements, Source: Inquirer, August 2
  3. To Build Big Reservoir, Water Company Will Create Large Lake Near Scranton, Source: Bulletin, August 5
  4. Water Bureau Wins Baseball Honors, Defeats Sheriff’s Office at Phillies’ Park by Score of 11 to 6, Nolan Proves Star, Source: North American, August 16
  5. Street Workers Flooded, Were Digging in Ditch When Water Main Burst, Source: Record, September 13
  6. ‘Scolds’ Magistrate for His Tardiness, Young Woman Held for Reckless Driving Asks Why He Kept Her Waiting, “Judge” Promises to Be on Time at Further Hearing; Motorists Are Fined, Source not known
  7. Caven Names Ten New Public Works Employees, Source: North American, September 12


  1. Now My Idea is This! Daily Talks With Thinking Philadelphians on Subjects They Know Best, Source not known, 1922
  2. Water Shortage Feared by Davis, West Philadelphia Supply Endangered This Summer, Bureau Chief Warns, Belmont at Capacity, Tells Residents and Manufacturers to Be as Sparing as Possible, Source: Ledger, June 18, 1922
  3. New Water Station is Pride of Bureau, Mayor to Inspect Fine Plant on Site of Old Cambria Reservoir, Repair, Storage and Administration Work Grouped Effectively Under Plan, Source: Inquirer, August [7]
  4. Repair Shop Nearly Ready, City Will Soon Have Complete Plant for Water Bureau, Source: Record, August 17


  1. Webster to Quit As Survey Chief, Resignation Expected Soon and J.M. Nobre May Get Old Job, Sproul Refuses to Accept Responsibility of Approving Expenditures on Bridge, Source: Inquirer, November 27, 1920
  2. Caven Lifts Ban On Bond Firm of Ex-Mayor Smith, Company to Make Good Forfeited Contract for Sewage Disposal Plant, Agreement Ends Eight Months’ Fight Over Black-listing, Source: Inquirer, November 26, 1920
  3. Northeast Sewer Plant Fight Ends, Department of Public Works Compromises With Bond Company, Completion of Contract Calls for Extra Expenditure of $350,000, Source: North American, December 15, 1920


  1. Webster to Quit Survey Bureau, Will Become Directing Engineer of the Joint Bridge Commission, Once Dock Dept. Head, $100,000 Budget Submitted by Engineers for Commission’s Approval, Source: Ledger, November 27, 192[?]
  2. Nobre to Get Job, Will Go Back to Survey Bureau When Chief Webster Quits, Source: Record, November 27, 1920
  3. To Increase Revenues, New Water Ordinance in Council Will Net $400,000 Yearly, Source: Record, December 15, 1920
  4. Fund For Underpaid City Employees Urged, Council Asked to Set Aside $200,000; 40 Per Cent of Workers Get Under $4 Day, Source: Inquirer, December 3, 1920
  5. City Loses $5000 Suit, Must Pay Big Damage to Woman Injured on Street, Source: Inquirer, December 10, 1920
  6. More Pay For Experts, Contract Extends Services of Griffe hagen Concern, Source: Record, November 26, 1920
  7. McCormick Bill for National Public Works Department, Source: North American, December 13, 1920


  1. Votes, Loss of by Bursting Water Mains- table of contents


  1. Vare Plant, Lease of Votes, Loss of by Bursting Water Mains – table of contents

2004.014.0027 - 2004.014.0035: Table of contents


  1. Photo: The Schuylkill Needs Water-Do Your Duty Mr. Jup. Pluv. [Jupiter Pluvius]
  2. Fairmount Dam To Be Replaced, City Prepares to Build a Masonry Structure to Succeed Wooden One, Source: Ledger, July 24, 1921
  3. City Contracts Approved, Source: Ledger, May 24, 1922
  4. Hot Water a Great Eater of Pipes, Chief Davis Says, Confident That Householders’ Frequent Calls to Plumbers Are Not Due to the City Use of Copper Sulphate and Chlorine; Source: Ledger, September 19, 1922
  5. Effect of Distilled Water, Source: Ledger, September 29
  6. The Schuylkill Supply, The Present Drought as an Argument for an Impounding Reservoir, Source: Bulletin, October 2, 1922



  1. Anti-Sesqui Body, North Philadelphia Manufacturers Protest Fair as Costly Undertaking, Source: Inquirer, September 28, 1922
  2. Water Main Bursts, Source: Ledger, May 2, 1922
  3. Caven Adds 8 Names to City’s Payrolls, Five Appointed in Surveys Bureau, Two in Highways, One in Water, Source: North American, September 16
  4. Schuylkill Lowest in 6 Years; Water Shortage Possible, Towns Along River Already Suffer as Result of Drought, River Only Pools, Source: North American, September 30, 192[?]
  5. Guarding Water Supply, State Health Department Acts as Result of Prolonged Drought, Source: Record, October 3
  6. Drought Situation Becoming Acute In All Parts of State, Rivers at Lowest Stage in Many Years; Epidemic Feared, Animals Suffer, Source: North American, October 5, 192[?]
  7. 100-Year-Old Wooden Water Main is Dug Up, Source: North American, September 22
  8. Long Drought Grips Practically All U.S., Country Rainless for More Than Month and No Relief Is in Sight, “Sluggish Low Air Strata” Blocking Moisture Bearing Winds, Official Excuse, Source: [Inquirer], October [?], 192[2]


  1. Schuylkill Fish Dying, Source not known
  2. Water Shortage Ruins State Crops, Worst Drought in Years Eating Up Fields, Source: Ledger, October 6
  3. Water Problem Becoming Serious, Growth of City Threatened Unless Plant is Enlarged, Chief Davis Declares, Source: Ledger, October 14
  4. Water Problems, Source: Ledger, October 16, 1922
  5. Must Extend Water Supply, Says Davis, Bureau Chief Sees End of Building Boom Unless Pipes Are Laid, Rivers Polluted, Source: North American, October 14, 1922
  6. Schuylkill Low at Source, Fish Die as River Reaches Lowest Mark in History, Source: Bulletin, October 24
  7. Cry For More Water, Builders, Chief Davis Says, Are Reaching Limit of Supply, Source: Record, February 14
  8. Coal Towns Drying Up, Scarcity of Water in Schuylkill Region Causes Anxiety, Source: Record, October 31
  9. Refuse in Schuylkill Is Killing Many Fish, Condition Becoming Worse, Says Locktender at Flat Rock Dam, Source: Ledger, October 26
  10. Reading Gas Works Polluting the River, Chlorine Used to Purify Water Causes Bad Taste, Officials Explain, Source: North American, no date given
  11. Chlorine in Water, Source: Record, November 1, 192[?]
  12. Chlorine Cocktails, “Terrible,” Says Limeburner; “Pretty Bad,” Adds Hall After Drink, Source: Inquirer, November [?]


  1. Northeast Water Supply Criticized, Municipal Research Bureau Says Limited Facilities Retard Development, Urges Series of Mains, Source: Bulletin, November 9, 1922
  2. Fear Water Shortage This Winter in Adams Co., Source: North American, November 17
  3. Water for The Northeast, Source: Ledger, November 12
  4. Phila. Water Makes W.C.T.U. Members Ill, Chlorine ‘Purification’ Assailed in Council by McCoach, Even Kills Fish, Source: North American, November 15, 1922
  5. Drought Menacing Upstate Industries; May Halt Mining, Score of Collieries Must Close Unless Water Supply is Replenished, Hauto Power Plant to Be Forced Idle if Rain Does Not Fill Big Dam, Source: North American, November 1[?]
  6. Drought Continues, Short Rations Necessary; Many Industries Are Hard Hit, RRS. Feel Pinch, Source: North American, November 22


  1. Budget To Be Cut More Than Planned, Council May Have to Review Work to Keep Within 1923 Income, Total of $1,450,000 Slashed, 2,600,000 to Go Deeper, Pruning Imperative, Source: Inquirer, November 15
  2. Musicians Ask Increase, Source not known, 1922
  3. Steel Mills About to Quit; Mines Down As Drought Pinches, Shamokin, Johnstown and Other Places in Sight of Famine, Streams Go Dry, Source: North American, November 23
  4. Cambria Steel Co. To Quit in Week Unless it Rains, Source: North American, November 23
  5. Disastrous Fire Lowers Berwick Water Supply, Source: North American, November 27
  6. Chief Davis Tells What Makes Phila. Water Taste Bad, Mine and Factory Wastes Are Just Some of the Things, Not Chlorine, Source: North American, November
  7. Bad-Tasting Water Called Healthy, Bureau Officials Admit Justness of Complaints, but Assure the Timid, Free From Disease Germs, Drought Accentuates Volume of Sewage and Decayed Vegetable Matter in Schuylkill, Source: Ledger, no date given
  8. Town on Water Rations, Shortage at Shamokin Results in Action to Keep Mines Going, Source: Record, November 21


  1. Drought Menaces Cambria’s Mills, 8000 Losing Jobs, Johnstown Will Turn Company’s Water Into City Mains in Three Days, Many Other Big Plants and Collieries Hard Hit, Restrictions Grow Apace as Scarcity Increases All Over Rural Pennsylvania, To Ban Family Washing, Conditions Around Reading “Truly Alarming”-Shamokin’s Plight Worse, Source not known, November 23
  2. Prayers Unavailing; Drought Increases, Schuylkill River Dry at Source Except for Mine Water, Source: North American, November 20
  3. Streams Set Low Mark; Many Fish Found Dying; Source: North American, November 20
  4. Shamokin Water Supply Will Only Last This Week, Source: N. American, November 20
  5. Collieries Use Water From Mines For Boilers, Source: North American, November 20
  6. Schuylkill at Pottsville Drops 6 Inches in One Day, Source: N. American, November 21


  1. [May]or Urges Water Service Expansion [in] Northeast Boom, Suggests Council Authorize Purchase of 3 Private Companies, Source not known
  2. [?] Offers Excuse for Council, Source: Inquirer, November 17
  3. City Fund For 1926 Fair May be Used For Water, Council Called Upon to Take Prompt Action for Better Supply, Many Extensions Needed, Members Say Public Must Show Desire for Exposition Before Money is Given, Source: Record, November 24
  4. Taste of City Water Drives Thousands of Families to Park, Carried in Autos, Source: North American, November 16
  5. Want Much Better Water and Sewerage System, Would Cost $120,000,000 and Upward-May Resubmit $52,000,000 Loan, For Election of Solicitor, Part of Automobile License Fees Wanted-Ask Merger of Welfare and Health Bodies, Source: Ledger, November 21
  6. Mayor Would Buy 3 Water Plants, Proposes Way to Improve Conditions in Northeast, Source: Ledger, November 17
  7. P.R.R. Unable to Get Water in Coal Regions for Freight Service, Source: Ledger, November 18


  1. City Water Makes Fish ‘Flip” Bucket, Chlorine Kills Aquarium’s Hardiest Denizens,-“Rich Flavor” Comes From Trade Waste, Says Davis, Safe for Human Beings, Source: Bulletin, November 16, 1922
  2. Bad Water Near Filter Beds, Source: Ledger, November 21, 1922
  3. No Law to Remedy River’s Pollution, Commissioner of Fisheries Says He is Unable to Cope With Schuylkill Situation, Deplore Fish Slaughter, Source: Ledger, November 13
  4. Water Situation Upstate is Grave as Wells Dry U[p], Exhaustion Nears Because of Extensive Pumping in Pottsville Region, Source: North American, November 29
  5. Water for the Northeast, Source: Ledger, November 26, 1922
  6. Gold Fish Dying, Blame City Water, Fanciers Say Chlorine “Bumps them Off” More Effectively Than a Machine Gun, Canaries Affected Too, Source: Bulletin, November 20
    City To Ask State Aid in Improvements, Water and Sewage Legislation to be Sought, To Go To Capital, Source not known, November
  7. Water When Wells Run Dry, Source: Bulletin, November 25
  8. Mt. Airy Main Breaks, Two Salesmen Hurt When [?] Strikes Hole in Street, Source: Record, November 25


  1. [?]es City Water Supply Must Be Treated Before Use, Too Much Chlorine is Charge of Expert, Who Suggests Other Remedies to Offset Its Effect, Source: Ledger, November 21, 1922
  2. Treatment of the Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, November 28
  3. Drugs in Drinking Water, Source not known, November 25, 1922
  4. High Water Cost Rouses Oak Lane, Smyth Defends Delay, Source: Ledger, November 21
  5. Buy Water Plants is Hall’s Advice, Council Leader Asserts Oak Lane Should Have Relief From High Costs, But Differs With Mayor, Source: Ledger, November 23
  6. The Water Problem, Source: Bulletin, November 24
  7. Auto Sinks Into Water Main Break, Two Men Injured, Residents of Section Face Brief Famine, Private Homes and Public Institutions Temporarily Cut Off From Supply of Water, Source not known
  8. No Title, Sentence begins-“A grave menace to health…” Source: Record, November [?]


  1. [M]ember Was Driest in More Than 100 Years, Less Than Half Inch of Rain Fell During Record-Breaking Month, Source: Ledger, no date given
  2. Germantown to Get More Water, Da[vis] Promises to Run Pipes to Roxborough Plant, Dam Discussed, Source: North American, December 2
  3. Dispute Holds Up Fairmount Dam, Mayor and Art Jury in Controversy Over Foot Bridge, Councilmen Told, Endangers Water Supply, Continuance of Narrow Streets Up for Discussion in Committee, Source: Ledger, December 2
  4. Council Promises Fairmount Dam, Mayor Said to Have Failed to Use Available Money, Source: Ledger, December 8
  5. City Water System is Praised by Davis, Chief Says Present Supply is the Best in the History of Philadelphia, Tells Council Extension of Plant, However, Is Necessary to Meet Needs, Source: Inquirer, [December] 2
  6. Taste in Water is Not Poisonous, Absolutely Pure and Safe Drink, However Unpleasant, is Verdict, Chlorine Not to Blame, Source: Bulletin, December 2
  7. Increased Pressure Causes Seven Water Main Breaks, Source: North American, December 2
  8. Menace of Dam Cited, Mayor Says Council is Disposed to Vote Fairmount Funds, Source: Inquirer, December 12
  9. Coal Regions Await Promised Rainfall, Source: North American, December 11


  1. New Fairmount Dam of Greatest Need, Say City Officials, Councilman Hall Prepared to Offer $600,000 Bill at Once, Present Schuylkill Structure Menace to W. Phila. Water Supply, is Warning, Source: Inquirer, Date not given
  2. West Germantown is Without Water When Main Bursts, Pipe From Roxborough Breaks; Repairs Found Difficult, Source: North American, December 12
  3. Haul Water for Mines in Huge RR. Tank Cars, Source: North American, December 8, 1922
  4. City Schools Get Supply of Coal, Enough is Rationed to Keep Buildings Opened for Three to Four Days, One Closed for Short Time, Source: Ledger, December 12, 1922
  5. Mines Near End of Water Supply, Source: Ledger, December 3
  6. Drought Compels Train Suspension, No Water for P.R.R. Through Freights in Pottsville Region, Shamokin Reserve Gone, Empty Dams and Reservoirs May Mean One-Hour-a-Day Ration, Source: Ledger, December 12, 1922


  1. Photo: Washout Caused by Broken Water Main, Source: Ledger, December 12, 1922
  2. Fix Water Break After 12 Hours, Supply Restored to Germantown and Roxborough by Repairs to Isolated Main, Hunt Through Dark Wood (this article is attached to photo above), Source: Ledger, December 12, 1922
  3. Can’t Get Water in Shamokin, Use Milk, Bakery Orders 150 Gallons to Keep Going in Drought, Source: North American, December 9
  4. Susquehanna Gains a Little, Source: Record, December 11
    Go Ahead With the New Fairmount Dam, Source: Inquirer, December 2, 1922
  5. Shamokin Facing a Water Famine, Source: Inquirer, December 5, 1922
  6. Drought Victims Get Little Relief, Fear Freezing Water That Will Prevent Moisture From Sinking Into Ground, Mining Centers Suffer, Tales of Serious Damage to Winter Wheat Come From Many Counties, Source: Ledger, December 6


  1. Fuel and Water Famines Worse as Mercury Falls, Source: Ledger, December 14, 1922
  2. Pottsville Region Dryer Than Ever Known Before, Cold Weather Freezes the Little Moisture That Was Flowing, Source: Record, December 11
  3. Mount Carmel Supply Gone, Source: Inquirer, December 4
  4. Council to Speed New Fairmount Dam, Committee Rushes Approval of Appropriation to End Menace, Advance Work for Transit Extensions in Northern Part of City Also Pushed, Source: Inquirer, December 14
  5. End of Water is in Sight Unless There is Rain Soon, Pottsville’s Resources Likely to Be Exhausted in Ten Days, Source: Record, December 27
  6. City Water ‘Sick’ and Being ‘Doped’, Chemist Also Charges it Dissolves Pots When Boiled and Pickles the Breakfast Egg, Hurts Liver Too, He Says, Source: Bulletin, December 22
  7. Mayor Says City Water is Not Contaminated, Has Assurance Also That Equipment is Now Up to Date, Source: Record, December [?]


  1. The Old Oaken Bucket From Which, Source: Ledger, no date given
  2. Photo attached to the above article, caption: “…one of the big engines with which Philadelphia’s water supply is pumped from the Delaware River… at Lardner’s Point, the largest pumping station in the world. To generate the necessary steam supply requires 200,000 tons of coal annually at this station alone”, Source: Ledger, no date given
  3. 45 Years in Water Bur[eau], Paymaster John Hand, Who [Re]signs, Has Served Under 8 Ch[?], Source: Ledger, December 28


  1. Philadelphians Must Drink, Source not known, December 31, 1922
  2. Photo attached to the above article, caption: “…view of the Queen Lane filtration plant…”, Source not known, December 31, 1922
    Second photo attached to the above article, caption: “Carleton E. Davis, chief of the City Water Bureau”, Source not known, December 31, 1922
  3. Wants Higher Water Rate, Councilman Hall Thinks They Are Too Low Here, Source: Bulletin, January 1, 1923
  4. Employees in Works Department Will Be Laid Off Because of Budget Cut, Will Save $1200 a Day, Source: Ledger, December 2[?]



  1. Proposed City Hall Bridge to Have Thirteen Exits, Aerial Footway Plans Roughly Sketched by Superintendent Mills, Source: Ledger, January 1, 192[3]
  2. Photo attached to the above article, caption: “Map of proposed aerial footway around City Hall, with the thirteen designated connections between sidewalks and elevated structure. The interior span running through City hall courtyard from east to west is also indicated”, Source: Ledger, January 1, 192[?]
  3. Philadelphia’s Water Supply, Source: Ledger, December 29
  4. Drought is Broken by Snow and Rains, Source: Inquirer, December 12
  5. Mayor Again Urges Water Works Plan, Would Take Over Private Companies to Relieve Northeast Shortage, Source: North American, December 19
  6. City’s Water Supply And Its Protection From Raw Sewage, With Improved Methods for Disposal Refuse, Doubt is Cast on Project for Mammoth Sewer, Source: Ledger, January 3, 1923


  1. Precaution Urged For Water Supply, Davis Advises Connecting Districts Now Divided by Schuylkill, Safety Measure, Source: North American, December 28, 1922
  2. Westmoreland Street Water Main Breaks, Cellars Are Flooded and Streets Turned Into Small Rivers, Source: Inquirer, January 12
  3. Fairmount Dam, Source: Ledger, no date given
  4. Plan Water Improvements, Seek Metropolitan Supply System, With Aid of Sate, Source: Bulletin, January 2
  5. Water Bureau Reports Big Profit for Year, Turned Over $6,450,000 to City, $500,000 More Than Controller’s Estimate, Many Get Service Free, Despite This and Low Rates, Water Works Are Run at Fine Profit, Source: Record, no date given
  6. The City’s Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, January 6, 1923
    City Water Blamed in Family’s Illness, Source: Inquirer, January 3, 1923
  7. Water Bureau “Profits,” Case Where Proprietor and Customer Are One and Same, but People Satisfied With Low Taxes, Source: Ledger, no date given


  1. [?]ere Fire Raged Unchecked Through Lack of Water, Lack of Hydrants at $100,000 Blaze, Firemen Checked in Combatting Flames That Destroy Valve Factory, Water Supply Reported Far From Scene of Spectacular Fire, Source: Inquirer, January 8, 1923
  2. Photos attached to the above article, caption: “Showing damage done by flames…at the plant of John Maneely & Company, D Street below Nicetown Lane…”, Source: Inquirer, January 8, 1923
  3. Mayor Investigates Lack of Water at Fire, Maneely Blaze Calls Attention to Needs of Big Territory, Source: Ledger, January 9
  4. Break in Huge Main Cuts Water Supply From Half of City, Entire Northeast and Southwest Sections Affected by Accident, Factories Flooded, Restaurants Dry, Post Office Dark; Repairs Are Rushed, Source: Inquirer, January 11


  1. Huge Water Main Bursts in Frankford, Source: Inquirer, January 11, 1923
  2. Photo attached to the above article, caption: …a sixty-inch water main broke at the Frankford creek bridge on Torresdale Avenue…picture shows the tremendous volume of water that poured from the break, which occurred at an elbow on the cast abuttment of the bridge. This is the third accident of the kind that has taken place at the same spot within three years, Source: Inquirer, January 11, 1923
  3. An Accidental Drought, Source: Bulletin, January 12
  4. That Broken Water Main, Source: Ledger, January 12


  1. [Cit]y’s Water Needs Accented by Break, Source: Bulletin, January 12, 1923
  2. Normal City Water Supply is Restored, Full Pressure Returned 21 Hours After Break in Giant Main, $500,000 Damage Estimated as Result of Flood in Nearby Plants, Source: Inquirer, January 12
  3. More City Water Imperative Need, Bad Taste of Present Supply Unpleasant, But Not Unhealthy, Says Mayor, Shortage Real Crisis, Source: Bulletin, January 15
  4. $5,000,000 Yearly Asked For Water, Councilman Hall Would Meet Pressing Problem by Fifteen-Year Program, Need Results at Once, Source: Bulletin, January 16


  1. City Must Seek Water Up-State, Storage Basins on Perkiomen and Tohickon Creeks of Prime Importance, Could Keep Rivers High, Source: Bulletin, January 17
  2. Chart title: How City’s Water Requirements Grow, caption: The chart is based on an estimated population of 2,800,000 in 1950, 3,500,000 in 1970 and 4,300,000 in 1990. The dotted lines show the estimated increase in consumption of water in that time on a per capita consumption of 170 gallons without meters and 130 gallons with meters, Source: Bulletin, January 16, 1929
  3. Map title: Available Water Sources for City, caption: …Perkiomen, Tohickon, and Neshaminy Creeks would take care of the supply for years to come, source: Bulletin, January 17
  4. Map title: Map of Philadelphia’s Water System, caption: Location of the various pumping stations, filtration plants, reserve and distribution areas in plan declared by Mayor to be inadequate, source: Bulletin, January 15, 1923


  1. Special Analysis of City Water Results in Finding it Safe to Drink, Chemists Asked to Make Independent Tests After Many Complaints and Fears by Physicians That Increased Disease Resulted From Supply, Source: Ledger, February 12, 1923
  2. Table title: The Analysis of Philadelphia Water, Source not known
  3. Water Storage Needed, Source: Bulletin, January 23
  4. Hall Would Rush Broad Street Tube, For a Great Water Supply, Source: Ledger, January 20


  1. City Fails to Find Artesian Water, Camden System Impossible Here Because of Dissimilar Soil Formation, Experts Say, Tried Using Wells Once, Source: Bulletin, February 2
  2. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, February 10
  3. More Water Mains Sought, North Kensington Business Men Ask Protection, Source: Bulletin, February 15
  4. What Water Remedy? Local Authorities Should Follow Example of New York and Seek Pure Source for City’s Supply, Source: Ledger, February 17
  5. Water Safe to Drink, Source: Ledger, February 13, 1923
  6. River Pollution Serious Problem, Research Bureau Calls Adequate Sewage Disposal System Unescapable Duty, Has Comprehensive Plan, Source: Ledger, February 15


  1. Roper Loses Fight For Water and Gas, Source not known
  2. City Contract Data at Museum Probe, Source: Ledger, March 5


  1. Phila. Water Safe, Officials Declare, Fears Unfounded Despite Bad Taste and Odors, They Say-Compares With Any City, Source of Supply Bad, Source: Bulletin, March 1
  2. City Water Carries Danger of Typhoid, Rivers Used to Supply Philadelphia Polluted by Sewage of Other Cities, Source: Inquirer, April 6
  3. Photo caption: In City’s New Machine Shop, J. Remer and Harry Duncan repairing the seven-foot impeller for Torresdale pumping station, in city’s new machine shop, at Twenty-ninth and Cambria Streets, Source: Inquirer, April 19
  4. Water and the Schuylkill River Dam, Source: Inquirer, March 5
  5. Urge Prompt Action for Better Water Supply, Source: Record, April 4
  6. Break in Main Causes Street Cave-in, Source: Inquirer, March 11
  7. Mayor Asks Water Credit, Report Says Hall’s Plan Anticipated in 1920 Scheme, Source: Bulletin, April 11


  1. Immense New Water System Urged for City, Would Tap Sections Just Above Phoenixville-Total Cost Put at $135,000,000, Hall Introduces Loan Bill of $5,000,000 to Start, Aqueducts Would Fill Reservoirs Having Total Capacity of 120,000,000,000 Gallons, Source not known, [?] 25, 1923
  2. Map attached to the above article, title: Hall’s Plan for City Water Supply, caption:…shows the three stages by which the system of immense aqueducts would be installed to catch the watersheds of three valleys and bring them down to the city…total project would cost $135,000,000…, Source not known, [?] 25, 1923
  3. The City’s Water Problem, Source: Ledger, March 25
  4. Hall’s Water Pl[?] Old, Caven Sa[ys], Merely Modification of Rep[?] of 1920 Water Commissioner Director Alleges, Officials Talk it O[?], Source: Ledger, March 25


  1. Photo #1, title: Perkiomen Creek at Greenlane, caption: A sweeping view of the Perkiomen at Greenlane, which is several miles above Collegeville, Source: Bulletin, March 24, 1923
  2. Photo #2, title: Where It is Proposed to Build a Big Reservoir to Augment[ation], caption: Icehouse at Greenlane, eighty feet high, which will be the approximate height of the proposed reservoir, Source: Bulletin, March 24, 1923
  3. Photo #3, title: Philadelphia’s Water Supply, caption: One of several dams above Greenlane which add to the picturesqueness of the stream that is the heart of the $20,000,000 project, Source: Bulletin, March 24, 1923
  4. Engineers Praise Hall Water Plan, George W. Fuller Calls Project to Ultimately Cost $135,000,000 “Safe and Sane”, Mayor is Favorable, Source: Bulletin, March 23
  5. Photo #4, title: Scene of Proposed Reservoir, caption: In this section would be created under Councilman Hall’s plan a water supply system surpassing any other except New York’s. An enlarged dam would be erected to hold billions of gallons, Source: Bulletin, March 26
  6. $6,000,000 Spent on Water Works, Surveys Made for Tapping of New Sources, Source: North American, April 11, 1923
  7. City Engineers to have Outing, Source: Record, June 21
  8. House Puts Bills Through Looking to Use of Water, Passes Delaware River and Giant Power Survey Measures, Source not known


  1. Typhoid Menace Here Seen in Sewage From Two Cities, Reading and Trenton Wastes Carry Germs Into Water Supply, Source: North American, April
  2. Mayor Gives Praise to the Work of Mr. Weglein, Tells Business Men President of Council Did Much for Reforms, Source: Record, April 13
  3. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, March 24
  4. Houses Flooded When Main Breaks, First Floors Awash and Cellars in Germantown Filled, Trolley Cars Blocked, Source: Ledger, April 1
  5. A Tainted Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, April 7
  6. Towns Along Schuylkill Move to Stop Pollution, Culm From Mines Has Started to Clog Up the Channel Here, Source: Ledger, April 2[?]
  7. New Fairmount Dam Soon, Source: Ledger, April 13


  1. Photo #1, title: Perkiomen Creek Long Regarded as Desirable Source for an Increased Water Supply for Philadelphia, Source: Bulletin, April 18, 1923
  2. Photo #2, title: Fairmount Dam Will be Engineering Triumph 1100 Feet Long to Cost $700,000, caption: The old Fairmount Dam, a section of which is shown in the photograph, is to be replaced by a modern engineering masterpiece 1100 feet long, of cyclopean masonry, to cost $700,000, Source: Ledger, April 15, 1923
  3. Culm is Clogging Upper Schuylkill, Source: North American, April 20
  4. Mayor Challenges Improvement Plans of Political Foes, Hall Water Supply Ideas Copied From Administration Survey, Source: Inquirer, April 17


  1. Boat Heist Planned to Save City Water, Elevator for Canoes May Be Installed at the Fairmount Dam, Locks Drain Pool, Source: North American, July 5, 1922
  2. Councilman Conferees Indicate Intent to Cut Mayor’s Figures, Leaders May Hold Total at $4,500,000 in Defiance of Administration Needs, Source: Inquirer, March 31
  3. Big Waste of Water Laid to Yard Spigots, Millions of Gallons Declared Lost Thru Outdoor Hydrants, Leakage Great, Source: North American, April 30
  4. Break in Water Main Sounds Like Explosion, Floods Highway at Fifty-fifth Street and Cedar Avenue, Source: Record, May 28
  5. Water Main Break Cuts Off Overbrook Homes, Source: North American, May 24
  6. Weglein Lauds City Water Plan, Council President Declares There Can Be No Monopoly of Glory in the Program, $100,000 For Survey, Source: Ledger, April 15
  7. Hall Gets $10,000 Start For Water Supply Plan, Council Begins Emergency Measures Anticipating Failure of $5,200,000 Loan, Source: Inquirer, May 12
  8. Move For Future Water Needs Urged, Bureau Chief Davis Advises Setting Aside Three Creek Sources, Rivers Polluted, Source: North American, May 8
  9. 30 Miles of Water Pipe, Source: North American, May 11


  1. Photo, caption: Fairmount Water Works. [Photo of engraving by C. Childs, 1829]
  2. Philadelphia Requires an Auxiliary Plug System, Chief Carleton E. Davis, of Bureau of Reserving Hydrants for Fire Use Only, Type of Hydrant to Use, Source: Bulletin, no date
  3. High-Pressure Mains, Plans as Originally Drawn Provided Complete System, Source: Ledger, June 20, 1923
  4. Mayor Blames Council for Scarcity of Water, Tells Frankford Fathers He Has Tried to Get Action But Failed, Source: Record, June 27


  1. Chief Davis Resigns as Water Bureau Head, Noted Engineer to Quit City Service After 11 Years of Good Work, To Enter Private Service, Will Assume Direction of Indianapolis Company With Much Higher Salary, Source: Record, April 26, 1923
  2. City Water Works Chief Resigns to Go to Indianapolis, Davis Head of Bureau Here Since Blankenburg Regime, To Leave June 1, Source: North American, April 29
  3. Council Asks Davis To Keep Job Here, Resolution Urges Water Bureau Chief to Reconsider His Resignation, “Unfortunate For City,” Source: Ledger, April 26
  4. 16-Inch Water Main Breaks in Germantown, Source: North American, June 8
  5. Philadelphia’s Loss, Source: Bulletin, April 26
  6. Not Tomorrow, Now! Source: Ledger, May 10
  7. Culm Fills Up Bed Of Low Schuylkill River, Source: North American, July 20


  1. Photo of Dunlap, Water Office Head, Source: Inquirer, May 9
  2. Dunlap Water Office Head, Davis’ Resignation Produces Series of Promotions in City Departments, Source: Ledger, May 9
  3. Perkiomen Dam Site, 17 Councilmen in Party Favor Proposal After Trip, Source: North American, May 23
  4. “$1,000,000 Hole” Yawns Once More, Traffic at Broad and Walnut Street Again Bothered by Break in Pavement, Rush of Water Below, Source: Ledger, June 19
  5. City Water Supply Plan to be Fought, Perkiomen Valley Club to Rally Opponents of Project, Source: North American, July 13
  6. Dunlap Plans Use of Upper Delaware Watershed Supply, River Above Trenton and Neshaminy Creek to Be Utilized, Estimated Cost of $60,000,000 as Against $135,000,000 For Hall’s Project, Source: Inquirer, July 14
  7. Clash Likely Over Hall Water Plan, Weglein Declares Against Project That Will “Merely Dilute Schuylkill Soup,” Factional War Imminent, Source: Ledger, no date given
  8. Need of Water, Arch Street Business Men Send Resolution to Council, Source: Ledger, July 22, 1923


  1. City’s Engineers Making New Plans For Water System, Turning From Schuylkill Tributaries to the Delaware, Source: North American, July 14
  2. Dunlap Water Idea Assailed by Hall, Councilman Says Public Won’t Seriously Consider Delaware River Supply, New Plan to Mayor Soon, Source not known
  3. Plans for Water System Ready; To Cost $60,000,000, Supply to Come From Delaware and Neshaminy, Will Necessitate $12,000,000 Loan, City’s Needs Then Will Be Taken Care of For Next 50 Years, Source: North American, July 21
  4. Say Caven Water Plan Will Save $75,000,000, Substitution for Hall Project, Moore Claims, Will Benefit City Greatly, Complete in Ten Years, Would Eliminate Schuylkill as Source of Supply at Cost of $60,000,000, Source not known
  5. Council to Keep Control of The City Water Plant, Cannot Delegate the Work is Opinion of Legal Adviser, Source: Record, July 7
  6. Will Make Close Survey of Schuylkill River, City Joins State in Effort to Improve Sanitary Conditions, Source: Record, July 13


  1. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, July 13
  2. Schuylkill Dries Up, Pottsville Zone Suffers Worst Drought in Forty Years, Source: Ledger, July 23
  3. Break in Water Main Floods Market Street, Subway and Pavement Damaged by Early Morning Leak, Source: Inquirer, July 9
  4. Tie Up of $5,200,000 Loan Blocking Improvements, City Unable to Lay Water Mains to Supply Hundreds of New Homes, Source: North American, July 24, 1923
  5. Low Water Causes Schuylkill Odors, River Too Sluggish Because of Drought to Carry Off Sewage, Annoys Residents, Source: North American, July 23
  6. Break in Water Main at Broad and Arch, Streets Were Badly Flooded Before Break Was Located, Source: Record, September 4, 1922


  1. Ford, Westinghouse Plants Will Boom Southwest Phila., 50,000 Population Increase Seen; Means Outlay of Many Millions, Source: North American, July 25
  2. Need City Water For Huge Plants, Says the Mayor, New Concerns Ask Private Cos. In N.E. Be Bought, Council ‘Pickled’ Bill , He Declares, Has Urged Measure to Acquire Corporations Supplying Section, Source: North American, July 31
  3. City Water Supply Guards Are Sought, Two Chemically Trained Men to Patrol Schuylkill if Council Approves $3,300 Appropriation, Dunlap Voices Appeal, Source: Bulletin, July 13
  4. Water Contract Signed, Outside Concern to Supply House of Correction and Other Institutions, Source: Ledger, July 24
  5. To Cut Red Tape, Exemption of Water Bureau Chief in Interest of Efficiency, Source: Ledger, May 12, 1923


  1. Mayor Gives Water Plan to Council, Outlines $60,000,000 Program to Cover Ten Years, Against Hall Idea, Source: North American, August 31
  2. Roper Denounces Hall Water Plan, Source: Inquirer, September 12
  3. Hall Won’t Delay City Water Project, Bureau Plan Virtually ‘Scraps’ His Proposal for New System, Source: North American, July 24
  4. New Pump Station for Chestnut Hill, Council Acts to Relieve Low Water Pressure in Suburb, Source: North American, July 26
  5. To Put $60,000,000 Loan Thru Council, Leaders Preparing Bill; Discard Mayor’s Plans for New Water Supply, Source: North American, September 20
  6. Caven Awards Pipe Contract, Source: Record, August 17
  7. Bosses Already Plan to Expend Millions, Propose to Start Kendrick Administration With Lavish Spending of Cash, Big Loan Will Be Pushed, Amount Needed to Finance Schemes Will Greatly Exceed the Original Estimates, Source: Record, September 20
  8. Water Main Blast Tears Hole at 5th and Spruce, Leaves Cavity 15 Feet Long-Many Residents Are Awakened, Source: Bulletin, August 1


  1. [?] Loan Bills For a Total of $71,000,000, 2 Bills, Approved for Final Passage Monday Go to Voters at November Election, Provide Funds, Dunlap and Hall in Hot Debate Over Allotment for Start on Increased Water Supply, Source: Inquirer, September 21
  2. No title, Source: Record, September 21
  3. Here Is a Real Water Supply Plan, Source: Inquirer, August 22
    What of Philadelphia’s Water Supply? Source: Inquirer, September 13, 1923
  4. Getting Ready to Spend the City’s Millions, Source: Inquirer, September 26
  5. Will Compile Data on Water Supply, Bureau Engineers to Prepare Report on Upper Delaware Project, Surveys Are Made, Source not known


  1. Millions Needed for Water Supply, $6,000,000 in New Loan Bill Only “Drop in the Bucket,” Chief Declares, Neshaminy Project First, Source: Ledger, September 23
  2. Plans for Improvement of City’s Water Supply, Vast Expenditures Necessary to Make It Adequate to Rapidly Growing Needs, Source: Ledger, October 1[?]
  3. Should Start at Once to Improve City Water, Director Caven Urges Haste or Supply Cannot be Maintained, Source: Ledger, October 25


  1. Continued article of “Should Start…Cannot be Maintained” article from 2004.014.0074, Source: Ledger, October 25
  2. Harrisburg…Source: Ledger, September 1
  3. Drastic Steps to Stop Water Pollution Urged, 128 Supplies in Penna. Affected, Engineers Report, Schuylkill Not Fit For Bathing, Mayor Makes Assertion Before Gathering of 200 Experts, Source: North American, October 17
  4. Way Found to End Stream Pollution, State’s Plan Declared by Engineers to Be Best Ever Put Forth, Divided Into 3 Classes, Source: Ledger, October 17
  5. Northeast Citizens Plan Water Protest, Will Hold Mass Meeting to Demand Better Facilities From City, Mayor is Told, Source: North American, August 9


  1. Bathing Beaches on the Schuylkill Were Blocked by River’s Pollution, Lack of Sewage-Disposal System Blamed for “Terrible Condition” of the Stream-State Trying to Purify Upper Reaches of the River, Source: Ledger, October 18
  2. Engineers Meet Here to Discuss Pollution, Mayor Tells Them That the Problem is Growing as Fast as the Remedy, Come From Many States, Description of Water Filter Recently Invented Places It in the Front Rank, Source: Record, October 15
  3. Kendrick Blazes Way For Big Work, Stresses Need for Extension and Improvement of Water Supply System, Tells Typical “Fishtown” Republican Rally of Aims of Incoming Administration, Source: Inquirer, October 19
  4. Hall Scores Caven on Water Plan Rap, Calls Director’s Criticism of Perkiomen Project as Unsanitary “Willful Misrepresentation,” Declares He’s Disgusted, Source: Bulletin, October 20
  5. Big Waste of Water and Gas Seen in City by Still Operation, Dry Chief Asks U.G.I. and Water Bureau to Aid Enforcement, Source: North American, November 8
  6. Hall Urges Water Survey, To Ask for Commission Early Under New Administration, Source: [?], October 20


  1. Two Water Projects Analyzed by Expert, Advantages and Disadvantages of Hall-Caven Proposals, Source: Ledger, October 22
  2. M’Clure Says City Lets Distillers Waste Water, He Has Complained, He Reports, But No Action is Taken, Source: Record, November 9
  3. Water Main Bursting Causes Road Cave-in, Source not known



  1. [Union?]onizing of City Employees Attacked and Pleas Rejected, Forty-four-hour Week for Water Bureau is Quickly Killed, Council Budget Committee Passes on Many Items During Day, Source not known
  2. Dance in Caven Office, Public Works Employees Entertained by Retiring Director, Source: Ledger, January 1, 1924
  3. Kendrick Fills Directorships, Keeping Pledge, Picks Biles for Public Works, Krusen for Health and Grakelow for Welfare, All Appointments Wholly Nonpolitical, Consternation Over Intention to Ask for Resignations of All Bureau Chiefs, Put on Efficiency Basis, Three Men in Mind for Transit Head-Gossip About Minor Places to Be Filled, Source: Ledger, December 18


  1. Adoption of Water Supply Plan Urged, Closing of Schuylkill With Its Chemically-Purified Sewage Recommended, Caven Stresses Need of More Modern Destructors and Incinerating Plants, Source not known
  2. Now My Idea is This! Daily Talks With Thinking Philadelphians on Subjects They Know Best, Source: Ledger, November 7
  3. Water Company Valuation Stands as Rate Basis, Supreme Court Sustains Figures Fixed by Utility Board, Source: Record, November 16
  4. Let Us Have Water That is Fit, Source: Inquirer, October 20, 1923
  5. Rochester Using Iodine in Water to Fight Go[iter], Makes Experiment for Benefit of Thousa[nds] Susceptible Residents, Source: North American, January 11, 1924


  1. Dunlap and Neeson to Remain, Source: Inquirer, December 26
  2. Council Tackles Water Improvement Today, Important Ordinances Will Be Discussed by Committees, Source: Record, January 22
  3. Prime Need of the City, Source: Bulletin, January 14, 1924
  4. Chemically Treated Water, Source: Ledger, January 15, 1924
  5. Water-Power Idea Urged on Grange, Master, at Convention, Recommends State Build Dams and Lease Electricity, Chaplain Flays Lax Drys, Source: Ledger, November 13
  6. Davis May Head Water Engineers, City Hall Rumors Former Water Bureau Chief Will Return, Close Friend of Hall, Source: Bulletin, January 24
  7. West Philadelphia Water Causes Run on Drug Stores, Odor for Last Few Days So Objectionable Residents Are Unable to Drink It, Source: Ledger, January 12, 1924
  8. Hastening the New Fairmount Dam, Source: Inquirer, January 26, 1924
  9. Transit and Water Must Come First, Source: Inquirer, January 26, 1924
  10. Extending High-Pressure Fire Service, Source: Inquirer, January 29


  1. Dunlap Ousted From Water Job; Murdock Named, New Appointee Former City Engineer of Chicago, Has Done Great Work, Says Mayor, Fired Chief Declares Hall Has Carried Out Threat to ‘Get’ Him, Source: North American, January 25
  2. Water An Essential, Source: Bulletin, January 25
  3. One of the First Needs, Source: Bulletin, January 27
  4. Murdock is Named City Water Head, “Hall Said He Would Get Me,” Says Dunlap When Told of Removal, Position Pays $10,000, Source: Bulletin, January 25, 1924
  5. Photo of Alexander Murdock attached to the above article, Source: Bulletin, January 25
  6. Water Main Bursts, Nicetown Residents Carry Buckets for Breakfast Needs, Source: Bulletin, no date given
    Mr. Dunlap’s Case, Source: Bulletin, January 25
  7. Mayor to Name Water Experts, J.F. Hasskarl, Former Director of Wharves, Mentioned as One of Five Engineers, Will Improve System, Source: Bulletin, January 26


  1. Photo, title: Work to Start at Once on New $700,000 Fairmount Park Dam, caption: …Diagram at reader’s upper right shows detailed plan of the new dam. Diagram at reader’s lower left shows style of construction of the present dam. The dotted liens drawn in the diagram of the new dam show the size of the present dam as [?] the new project, Source: Bulletin, January 26, 1924
  2. Fairmount Dam Called a Menace, Theodore Justice Tells Mayor Structure Threatens West Philadelphia Water Supply, New Work Starts Soon, Source: Ledger, January 24
  3. Council to Speed New Fairmount Dam, Special Meeting Friday to Expedite Passage of Ordinance, To Pay State Bill, Source: North American, January 24
  4. Biles Seeks Bids on Fairmount Dam, Works Director Advertises Before Council Passes Enabling Ordinance, Action to Speed Water Plans Comes After Talk With Mayor, Source: Inquirer, January 24
  5. Peril to Traffic, Source: North American, January 29


  1. [Millions?] Voted for Public Works, City Council Appropriates Funds for Fairmount Dam and New Buildings at Byberry, Stir Over Dunlap Ousting, Cleanup Squads Being Formed in All Schools, Source: Ledger, January 26
  2. Photo title: To Extend High Pressure Service, caption: Diagram shown above indicates the proposed extension of the high pressure service to take in a larger territory in the central business section of the city as announced yesterday by Director George H. Biles, of the Department of Public Works. The completion of the extension, which will cost about $200,000, will be rushed, Source: Inquirer, January 28, 1924
  3. High Pressure Area Extension Outlined, Service in Market and Sansom Streets, West of Broad, Planned, Director Biles Reveals Progress of Proposal to Increase Fire Protection, Source: Inquirer, January 28, 1924
  4. Big Water Supply Link, Main Across Girard Avenue Bridge Will Protect West Philadelphia, Source: Inquirer, January 29
  5. Roper Seeks Cause of Dropping Dunlap, Councilman Investigating Reasons for Removing Water Bureau Chief, Resolution Asking Public Explanation of Action to Be Submitted to Mayor, Source: Inquirer, January 29
  6. For a “City Healthful”, Adequate Supply of Pure Water


  1. Davis is Asked to Head City Water Commission, Ousting of Dunlap Arouses Roper; Alleged Scandal in Sewer Construction Aired, Source: North American, January 26
  2. Dunlap May Get New City Hall Job, Ousted Water Bureau Head Considered for Chief of Street Cleaning Division, Other Changes Expected, Source: Ledger, January [?]
  3. Big Broad St. Water Mains to Be Moved, 48 and 30 Inch Pipes Lie in Path of Proposed Subway, Officials Confer, Source: North American, February 2
  4. Water Commission Naming is Delayed, Mayor Kendrick Wishes to Hear Advocates of the Delaware, Immense Problem, Source: North American, January [8]
  5. No title, begins with “With the building of the Fairmount Dam…” Source: Bulletin, January 30
  6. Mayor Says He Favors $100,000,000 Water Plan, Indicates Adherence to More Expensive Hall Proposal in Speech, Talks to Store Workers, Kendrick Addresses Strawbridge & Clothier Relief Association, Source: Record, February 12, 1924
  7. More Water For Suburbs, Crum Creek Filter Plant Will Increase Supply Greatly, Source: Ledger, February 8


  1. Mayor Reveals Full Plans For New City Hub, Vast Concourse Under Streets and Over Subways at Broad and Market, New City Hall Essential in Traffic Relief Plans, Underground Footways on Each Side of Chestnut Street Subway Trackline, P.R.R. Elevated To Go, Seashore Trains to Connect With Suburban Terminal by Filbert Street Subway, Source: Ledger, January 20, 1924
  2. Photo attached to the above article, title: The Proposed “Underground City” at City Hall Site, caption:…”shows how the suggested new scheme for a “City Beautiful” will be worked out underground…”, Source: Ledger, January 20, 1924


  1. Photo #2 attached to the article in 2004.014.0085, title: City’s Center May Look Under New “City Beautiful” Arrangement Now Being Planned, caption: “Here is a conception of what the vicinity of Broad and Market Streets may look like when final plans are put through…”, Source: Ledger, January 20, 1924
  2. With Woodruff, No Decision Reached, Commission Confined Work to Discussion of Expenditure of $500,000, Source not known


  1. Photo #3 attached to photo #2 in 2004.014.0086, title: How the City’s Center May Look Under New “City Beautiful” Arrangement Now Being Planned, Source: Ledger, January 20, 1924
  2. Mayor Picks 7 For Water Commission, Says He May Add One or Two; Hinges Upon Compensation, 3 in City Service, Source: Inquirer, February 5


  1. Kendrick Has Made a Good Beginning, Source not known
  2. Scheduled Pay $4 a Day, Men Get Only $16 a Week, Councilmen Tell Kendrick Some City Employees Have Hard Time, Source not known


  1. Photo, title: Conflicting Projects For Water Supply, caption: The four sources of water supply north of the city are shown on the map issued with the annual report of the city’s water bureau….Length of aqueducts costing approximately $1,000,000 a mile to convey water from the different supply basins to this city are shown in map, Source: Inquirer, February 1, 1924
  2. Mayor Has Plan For Water Relief; Parley is Planned, Will Call Round-Table Discussion to Obtain an Early Solution, Dunlap Says Delaware Intake Is as Polluted as Schuylkill Source, Source not known
  3. Ready for Work, Source: Ledger, February 17


  1. Mayor to Protect City’s Water Needs, Prepares Bid for Shore of Supply of Upper Delaware, Will Submit Claim to Tri-State Board on Division of Rights, Source: Inquirer, February 2
  2. Water Supply Body, Source: North American, February 12
  3. Mayor Names New Water Commission, Manufacturers Told New Watershed Must Be Found and Will Be Very Costly, Might as Well Face Expenditure of $50,000,000 or More, Says Kendrick, Source: Inquirer, February 15
  4. Preparing for the New Water Project, Source: Inquirer, February 6, 1924
  5. Water and City Health, Source: Inquirer, February 13, 1924
  6. Fairmount Dam Bids Are Opened, Director Biles Considering Five Proposals for Only Part of Construction Work, Big Waste in Water Leaks, Source: Ledger, February 14
  7. Water Main Breaks, Pipes Part at 23rd Street and Allegheny Avenue, Flood Vicinity, Source: Inquirer, February 19


  1. A New Water Commission, Source: Ledger, February 8, 1924
  2. Mayor Has a Water Plan of His Own to Advance, Not Impressed With That Put Forward by Councilman Hall, Source: Record, February 1
  3. Mr. Kendrick Calls in Moore Water Experts, Three of the Seven Members of the New Commission Examined the Water Supply Problem Four Years Ago, Source: Ledger, February 16
  4. New Water Commission to Consider Two Plans, Hall Proposal and Dunlap’s Cheaper Proposition to Be Taken Up, Details Are Pointed Out, Defects of Both Proposals Are Set Forth in Statement by Hasskarl, Source: Record, February 17


  1. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, February 20, 1924
  2. No title, begins “The award of a contract for the construction of a new dam at Fairmount…,” Source: Record, February 22
  3. Water System for 10,000,000 Planned, Commission Tells Mayor Report Will Be Made in 90 Days, Start Work Monday, Water Pure; Only Taste is Bad, Source: North American, February 22
  4. City Will Pay Water Experts $100 a Day, Four Engineers Will Begin Work on New Plan at Once, Biles Says, Source: Record, February 16
  5. Contract Given For New Fairmount Dam, Seeds & Derham to Build a Concrete Structure for $604,000, Thousand Feet Long, Source: North American, February 21
  6. Water Commission Has a Long Session, Chairman Biles Says Proceedings Would Not Interest the Public, To Report in 90 Days, Source: North American, February 26


  1. Extra Water Supply, an Interview with Dr. Henry Leffmann, Source: Record, February 17, 1924


  1. Photo, caption: New City Water Board at First Meeting, Left to right are-J. Waldo Smith, George W. Fuller, George H. Biles, Director of Public Works; Alexander Murdoch, chairman of Water Bureau; Mayor Kendrick, Joseph F. Hasskarl, S.M. Swaab and Edward Loeb, secretary to the Mayor, at first meeting of Water Commission under new city administration, Source: Inquirer, February [?], 1924
    May Start Dam Work, Authorization to Begin Rebuilding at Once Reported Received, Source: Ledger, February 12
  2. Mayor Will Speed New Water Supply, Promises, After Commission Meets, That Work Will Start in Several Places, Report Due in 90 Days, Source: Ledger, February 22
  3. New Water Commission Meets for First Time, Mayor Promises Body Will Have Complete Plans Ready in 90 Days, Source: Record, February 22
  4. Calls Water Conference, Engineers of Three States to Discuss Supply Program, Source not known
  5. Northeast Section to Demand Water Supply, Residents of Tacony and Holmesburg Plan Big Indignation Meeting, Mayor Pleaded in Vain, Council Has Made No Provision for Taking Over Plants of Private Companies, Source: Record, August 8, 1929
  6. Poor Pay and Hard W[ork], Councilmen Say Conditions at [Fil]tration Plant Are Deplorable, Source not known


  1. $550,000 is Voted For Water Works, Council’s Action Assures Extensive Improvements in City System, Many Street Changes, Source: Ledger, March 28
  2. Biles Gives Contracts For New Water Mains, Awards Coverning Many Miles of Construction to Cost $352,000 Announced, Source: Inquirer, March 27
  3. First Revolt in Council Ranks, Source: Record, March 26
  4. Big Sum For Needed Work, Other Projects Need Money, Source: Record, April 4
  5. Water Bureau Lost Fees Being Checked, City Wide Survey Made to Locate Unreported New Outlets, Source not known
  6. Pottsville Water Co. to Build Huge Reservoir, Source not known
  7. Mayor Wants City Water Plan Action, Would Take Over Oak Lane and Philadelphia and Bristol Companies, Estimated Cost, $1,100,000, Source: Inquirer, April 17
  8. Biles Wants $3,000,000, Will Present Improvement Plans to Council Tomorrow, Source: Inquirer, April 2
  9. Springfield Water Co. Valued at $17,500,000, Certificate is Issued by Public Service Commission, Source: Ledger, April 15
  10. Spring Freshet Swells The Delaware at Trenton, Highest Water in Ten Years and Plants Suffer Losses, Source: Record, April 8


  1. City Will Drop Schuylkill For Water Supply, Source for Next 70 Years Will Be Definitely Settled Within Few Weeks, Perkiomen and Delaware Plans Are Considered, Latter Calls for 18-Foot Aqueduct 25 Miles Long Carved From Solid Rock, Millions Involved in Work, Old System Will Be Used Where Possible-Council Harmony Presages Action, Source: Ledger, April 7, 1924
  2. Does the United States Take Full Advantage of Its Natural Resource? Source: Ledger, no date given
  3. Source of Water Supply Puzzling, Perkiomen Valley and Delaware River Believed Only Choices Before Commission, Schuylkill Limit Reached, Source: Ledger, April 8
  4. Water Supply Plan Enters Final Stage, Commission Discusses Proposed Perkiomen-Schuylkill-Delaware Combination, Recommendations and Report to Mayor Expected After Session Tomorrow, Source: Inquirer, [May] 19


  1. Buying Up Options on Trail of City’s Great Water Plan, Speculators Said to Be Offering Fancy Prices for Farm Lands in Perkiomen and Tohickon Valleys-Damages on Reparian Rights May Reach Millions, Dam 80 Feet High Would Create Lake 4 ½ Miles Long, Source: Bulletin, May 12, 19[?]
  2. Water Co. Asks For a Valuation, Source: Ledger, March 19
  3. Perkiomen Protests, Collegeville Editor Says Mayor Kendrick Should Listen to the Valley, Source: Bulletin, May 16
  4. This City Assured of Water Supply, Source: Ledger, March 15


  1. 5 Photos title: Views and Diagram of Countryside That May Be Drawn Upon to Supply Philadelphia With Water, caption of photo #1: Where an 80-Foot Dam May Form the waters of the Perkiomen into a lake 4 ½ miles long, caption of photo #2: Map of the Bucks and Montgomery County Districts That May Figure in New Water Plans, showing dams, aqueducts, and the tunnel that may be needed to join the Tohickon and Perkiomen Creeks, caption of photo #3: Nearly All the Water in Perkiomen Creek, Shown Above, Will Be Taken, if plans for Philadelphia’s new water supply involving this section are finally approved and adopted by City Council. The stone bridge was built in 1708. Just beyond is Collegeville, Montgomery County, caption of photo #4: East Swamp Creek, enters the Perkiomen. It too, would be dammed, should the talked of [?] adopted, caption of photo #5: Grist Mill at Perkiomenville, one of the industries that would be dep[?] water power by a dam like that shown above, Source: Bulletin, no date given
  2. Broken Main Floods West Penn Square, Fire Breaks Out in Commercial Trust Building at Same Time, Source: Ledger, May 18


  1. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, May 15
  2. Knock Perkiomen as Water Source, Residents of Valley Say 60,000,000 Gallons are Available Daily Only in Spring, If Then, Warn City Against Dam, Source: Bulletin, May 15, 1924
  3. Water Commission Silent on Report, Mayor and Members Decline to Talk After Protracted City Hall Session, Hall Says Land Speculators in Area Suggested Won’t “Milk Taxpayers”, Source: Inquirer, May 14
  4. Water Commission Will Report Soon, $70,000,000 Project Embracing Perkiomen and Tohickon Creeks Favored, Source: North American, May 13


  1. Voters to Act on $40,000,000 Loan in Fall, $10,000,000 Set Toward New Water Plan; Mayor Meets Council Committee Wednesday, Source: Inquirer, May 17
  2. $550,000 Approved for Water Dept. Use, Fire Hydrants to Require $50,000 of Sum; New Filtration Aid, Part of Big System, Source: North American, March 19, 1924
  3. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, May 17
  4. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, May 21
  5. Church Wins Water Fight, Lansdale Company Ordered to Install Supply for St. Stanisiaus’, Source: Ledger, March 22


  1. Perkiomen Area Urged as City’s Water Source, Mayor’s Commission Reports Superiority of Selected Zone Over Upper Delaware, Lehigh and Pocono Sheds for Pure Supply Adequate to Estimated, Needs of Next Fifty Years, Cost Upward of $100,000,000 and It Will Require 6 to 8 Years to Complete Seven Dams, With Storage Reservoir and Deep High Pressure Tunnel; Schuylkill Condemned as Polluted, Source: Inquirer, May 24
  2. Map attached to above article, title: Source of New Water Supply, caption: The above drawing shows the basin to be formed by the Perkiomen and Tohickon Creeks…Location of the Torresdale station, from where the Delaware water will be distributed, is also shown, Source: Inquirer, May 24


  1. Continuation of the article from 2004.014.0103, Source: Inquirer, May 24
  2. Engineer Defends City’s Water Plan, J. Waldo Smith, New York, Answering Dunlap Calls Perkiomen Scheme Cheapest, Withhold River Tests, Source: Bulletin, May 27
    Here It Is in a Nutshell, Source: Record, no date given
  3. All Facts Must be Known, Source: Bulletin, May 28, 1924
  4. The Water Report, Source: Bulletin, May 24


  1. Stupendous Blunder and Goldbrick Seen in New Water Plans, Experts’ Ideas Also Pronounced Peril to Health, Former Chief Dunlap Says Delaware at Torresdale is More Grossly Polluted Than Supply Source of Any City in United States, While Commission Programme is Extravagant, Filtered Sewage and Epidemic Menace Constant, While Projected System is Inadequate to Service Sought; Tapping of River at Yardley Suggested as Remedy With $60,000,000 Cost, Source: Inquirer, May 28, 1924
  2. Mayor to Receive New Water Supply Details Tomorrow, Data Withheld From Commission’s Report to be Submitted, Director Biles and Co-Members Refuse Discussion of [Pro]ject’s Phases, Source: Inquirer, May 28, 1924
  3. Photo of Fred C. Dunlap, Former Chief of Water Bureau, who calls Perkiomen-Tohickon project a “gold brick,” and describes supply from Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers as “rotten” and “filtered sewage.” Source: Inquirer, May 28, 1924


  1. Dunlap Scores New Water Plan, Former Bureau Chief Calls It Wanton Waste of Many Millions, Sees Menace to Health, Water Served From the Delaware Declared to Be Only Filtered Sewage, Sticks to Neshaminy Site, “Acting Mayor” Hall Intimates His Plan is Based on Opinion of Experts, Source: Record, May 28
  2. Perkiomen, Aroused by City Water Plans, To Fight Invasion, Playground and Bungalow Colony Say Valley Must be Preserved, Doubt Adequate Water, Source: North American, May 26
  3. Water Plans Get Under Way Soon, Biles Will Ask $2,000,000 of Fund Left from Old Loan to Speed Work, Repair Filter Beds, Source: Bulletin, May 27


  1. Perkiomen Folk May Carry Water Plan to Court, Organize to Protest Building of Dams in Upper Valley Region, Northeast Section Will Join in Fight, Residents Assert Delaware River at Torresdale Intake is Polluted, Source: North American, May 29, 1924
  2. Electoral Loan Water Item to be $10,000,000, Hall Will Ask Council Thursday to Pass Bill and Enable Early Start on Project, Mayor Kendrick Announces $3,500,000 Available for Extending Pumping and Filtering Plants, Source: Inquirer, May 25


  1. Publicity for the Water Supply Report, Source: Inquirer, May 27
  2. Are We to Drink Filtered Sewage? Source: Inquirer, May 28
  3. The Water Report, Source: Ledger, May 26, 1924
  4. Water Report’s Critics, Source: Ledger, May 29
  5. The City’s Water [?], Source: Bulletin, M[ay] [?]
  6. Too Much “Private Agreement” Source: Record, May 31
  7. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Bulletin, February 27


  1. [?] Report Reaches Council, Calls Critic of Proposed System “Disgruntled and Dismissed Official,” Says he Was Disloyal to Late Administration, Councilmen Deplore Alarming Statements-Pledge Publicity on Perkiomen-Tohickon Plan, Source not known
  2. Begin Water Fight at Council Session, Roper Will Demand Publicity and Other Councilmen Will Attack Perkiomen Project, Appropriation Bill Up, Source: Bulletin, May 29
  3. Condemned Dunlap Water Supply Plan Months Ago, Member of Mayor’s Commission Attacked Proposal in News Article, Source: Bulletin, May 29


  1. Wall St. Expects New Year to Go the Way ’26 Left Off, Questions Whether Rising Markets Will Dominate Situation, Source: Bulletin, January 1
  2. Main Break Floods Area in Northeast, Source: Bulletin, January 1
  3. Photo attached to above article, title: Where 15-inch Water Main Broke, caption: The hole in the pavement of Bristol St. between 4th and Lawrence Sts…., Source: Bulletin, January 1


  1. New Water Plan to Face Attacks in Council Today, Roper and Northeast Members to Open Vigorous Campaign for Public Hearings on Proposal and Full Investigation, Including Perkiomen Land Deals and Delaware Intake Analyses for Year, Introduction of $10,000,000 Appropriation Bill to Encounter Opposition; Dunlap Again Warns of Waste, Intimation of State Inquiry Into Whole Situation; Hall Pleads Open Mind, Source: Inquirer, May 29, 1924


  1. $10,000,000 Loan Bill Introduced in City Council, Sponsors of Project Promise Fullest Investigation and Widest Publicity Before They Place Their Approval on Commission’s Suggestion of Adopting Perkiomen and Tohickon Supply Bases, Dunlap Charges Hall Made Threat Before Kendrick Took Office That Former Water Chief Would Lose His Job If He Continued to Oppose Scheme Now Pending, Source: Inquirer, May 20
  2. Dunlap Charges Ousting Followed Threat From Hall, Source: Inquirer, May 20


  1. Hall and Connell Promise Publicity and Full Inquiry, Source: Inquirer, May 30
  2. $100,000,000 Cost of Water Plant, Commissioners’ Report, Before Mayor, Provides for City’s Needs Fifty Years Hence, Huge Reservoir Urged, Source: Ledger, no date given
  3. City Faces Fight on Water, Valley Residents Rally to Oppose Diverting of Perkiomen, Source: Bulletin, May 24
  4. Pure Supply is Ordered, Source: Ledger, May 27


  1. Mayor to Reply to Dunlap on Water Supply, Homeward-Bound From Canada, he Will Study “Costly Blunder” Charges, Voices his Confidence in Experts’ Judgement, $10,000,000 Ordinance, Says Hall, Does Not Commit City to Definite Plan, N.Y. Engineer Approves, Smith Commends Perkiomen-Tohickon Project-Northeast Disturbed Over Sewage, Source: Ledger, May 29
  2. Torresdale First to Be Improved in New Water Plant, Station Will Be Enlarged to Reduce the Consumption From the Schuylkill, $10,000,000 Loan to Give Funds to Start Work, Steps to Supply Funds Will Be Taken Thursday and Dirt Will Fly in Few Weeks, Source: Ledger, May 25
  3. The Perkiomen Invasion, Source: Record, May 28


  1. Council to Hold Public Hearings on City Water, Acts on Measures Providing $13,500,000 to Start $100,000,000 Project, Immediate Development in Torresdale Sought, Bill Authorizing Expenditure of $2,000,000 on Filter Station is Presented, Hall Criticizes Dunlap, Roper Comes to Former Chief’s Defense and Demands Hearing From Him, Source: Ledger, May 30
  2. Public Will Hear Dunlap on Water, Former Bureau Chief to Attend Hearings and Present His Objections to Perkiomen Plan, Answers Hall’s Attack, Source: Bulletin, May 30
  3. Buy Holmesburg Water Company, Is Mayor’s Plea, Sale of State Fencibles Armory Also Proposed, Resolution Protesting Against McNary-Haugen Bill in Congress is Passed, Source: Ledger, May 9


  1. Map title: Water Supply Plans From Bird’s-Eye View, caption: The conflicting plans for an improved water supply for the city are shown at a glance in the above diagram…The scored lines bound the plan advocated by Fred C. Dunlap, former Chief of the Bureau of Water, of this city, and reveal the upper Delaware river and the Neshaminy watershed as the sources of supply, Source: Inquirer, May 31, 1924
  2. Water Plan Cost Set at $50,000,000 Over First Figure, Dunlap Says Hall Project Will Involve $150,000,000 to Remedy Defects of System and Bring Adequate Supply to Entire City; Promises to Tell True Situation to Council Committee, Former Bureau Chief Accepts Invitation to Give Views at Public Hearing; Says Proposition Would Leave Large Section Unrelieved of Polluted Sewage for Drinking Purposes, Source: Inquirer, May 31


  1. Phila. Must Get State’s Consent to Water Plans, Approval of Health and Forest and Waters Departments Required, Experts Already Are Going Over Ground, Paying Particular Attention to Availability of Perkiomen Creek Valley, Source: North American, August 31
  2. Getting Facts on Water Supply, Source: Record, June 2
  3. Camden Avoiding Polluted Delaware for Water Supply, Source not known
  4. A Water Supply For The City of the Future, Mr. Russell Thayer Counsels Caution Before Any Comprehensive Plan is Adopted, Source: Ledger, May 31, 1924
  5. Water Supply Hearings, Source: Bulletin, June 4, 1924


  1. Continuation of article, “Water Supply Hearings” from 2004.014.0116, Source: Bulletin, June 4, 1924
  2. Oppose Use of Water From Delaware River, Source: North American, June 2
  3. Engineers Prepare Answer to Dunlap, “Line Upon Line” Reply on Project Will Be Ready for Mayor, To Push Torresdale Work, Source: Ledger, May 13
  4. Council Will Hear Public on Water, Dunlap Again Protests, Source: Ledger, May 30


  1. Mayor to Defend His Water Report, Will Have Reply to Dunlap Attack on His Return Next Week, Opposition is Growing, Residents of Northeast Section Resent Continued Use of Filtered Sewage, The Two Rivers Compared, Reports Prove Delaware Water is Three Times as Impure as the Schuylkill, Source: Record, May 29
  2. Mayor Has Open Mind on Water, Pledges Publicity for All Plans Advanced for Improvement of Supply, Surprised at Dispute, Source: Bulletin, June 2
  3. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, June 2


  1. Philadelphia Has Battled Over Water Supply Problem Since 1797, Back in 1872 a Commission Favored the Perkiomen, and in 1886 Rudolph Hering Advised Use of Delaware and Two Creeks Now Mentioned, Source: Ledger, June 1, 1924
  2. Delaware Water Supply Needed in City, Says Wells, Deputy Atty. General Adds Phila. Rights Must Be Conserved, N.Y. Planning to Get Power by Commission, Penna. Officials Uninformed of Local Needs for Next Fifty Years, Source: North American, June 2


  1. Lower River Water Has Double Danger Despite Filtration, Sanitary Engineers Find New Peril From Increased Chemical Use, Freeing From Germs Leaves Supply Unpalatable and Corrodes Piping, Source: Inquirer, June 2
  2. Mayor to Speak on Water This Week, Expected to Answer Dunlap’s Attack on Plan Backed by Hall, Will Move With Caution, Problem Involving Many Millions to Be Threshed Out by Expert Engineers, Upper Delaware [Fa]vored, Water From Polluted Lower River Admitted to Be Unfit for Drinking Purposes, Source: Record, June 2
  3. Fouled Waters, Source: Record, January 4
  4. Mayor Announces Hearing on Water, Public Session Set for Friday, Krusen Approves City’s Present Supply, Source: Ledger, June 4


  1. Davis Endorses Perkiomen Plan For City’s Water, Former Chief of Bureau Here Declares Project Recommended by Commission Will Give Phila. An Adequate Supply, Scores Dunlap Proposal as Giving Only One Source, Source: Bulletin, June 2, 1924
  2. Propose Citizens Buy Water Plant, Residents of Northeast May Be Asked to Purchase Holmesburg Works, Valuation Set at $854,610, Source: Ledger, June 3, 1924


  1. Polluted Water Use Defended by City Commission, Detailed Report to Mayor Replies to Criticism of Lower Delaware as Source of Supply for Next Fifty Years and Pleads Justification for Perkiomen-Tohickon Plan With Torresdale Intake, Kendrick Says Dunlap Suggestion Does Not Eliminate Present Filtration Plant Immediately; Pledges Full Publicity and Fair Treatment to All; Former Chief Davis Upholds Investigators’ Project, Source: Inquirer, June 3, 1924


  1. Then Why Spend All These Millions? Source: Inquirer, June 4, 1924
  2. City’s Water Safest in U.S.. Save Boston’s, Figures Show, Typhoid Mortality Rate Declined Steadily Since 1906; Perkiomen-Tohickon Hearing Friday, Source: North American, June 4
  3. An Unsatisfactory Situation, Source: Bulletin, June 7, 1924
  4. The Public Wants the Facts, Source: Inquirer, June 4
  5. Give Us All the Facts About Water, Source: Inquirer, June 5
  6. Take Over the Sectional Water Works, Source: Inquirer, June 5


  1. New Pollution Ban Gratifies Kendrick, Mayor Says State Order, Issued to Easton, Justifies Water Board’s Plan, Will Purify Delaware, Source: Bulletin, June 4
  2. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, June 3
  3. Swaab Answers Water Criticism, Will Never be Possible to Rid Schuylkill of Pollution, He Declares, “Great Expenditure” Hit, Source: Bulletin, June 5
  4. City Advised to Act to Stop Water Waste, New System Not Only Vital Point, Research Bureau Says, Source: Bulletin, June 5
  5. Specifying The Water Loan, Source: Bulletin, June 11, 1924


  1. Photo title: Perkiomen Water Project Before Council’s Committee, caption: Mayor Kendrick Addressing Councilmanic Committee, urging a complete inquiry as to the Perkiomen-Tohickon and other suggested sources for Philadelphia’s future water supply before committee action is taken. Seated on the platform, in Room 496, City Hall, from reader’s left: James Caldwell, secretary of Public Works’ Committee; George Connell, chairman, and Joseph Marcus, clerk of City Council. Also pictured are: Charles B. Hall, President of City Council; Mayor Freeland Kendrick; Director George H. Biles, of Public Works; Fred C. Dunlap, former Chief of the Water Bureau, Source: Bulletin, June 7,1924
  2. Water Commission To Be Heard Today, Source: Record, June 6
  3. Perkiomen Urged as Cheaper Than Rival Watershed, Commission Members Assert $15,000,000 to Equalize Pressure Would Make Neshaminy Plan Cost More Than Their Project; Continued Use of Torresdale Intake Disavowed, Bacilli Tests Show Schuylkill Less Polluted Than Delaware River at Tapping Point; Dunlap Warns of Epidemic Peril in “Sleeping Volcano” at the Chlorinization Station, Source: Inquirer, June 7


  1. Continuation of article, “Perkiomen Urged as Cheaper Than Rival Watershed,…” from 2004.014.0125, Source: Inquirer, June 7


  1. Continuation of article, “Perkiomen Urged as Cheaper Than Rival Watershed,…” from 2004.014.0125 and 2004.014.0126, Source: Inquirer, June 7
  2. Mayor Will Seek More Water Data, Declares He is Not Fully Satisfied Wants Maps Showing Dams and Aqueduct, No Criticism of Board, Source: Bulletin, June 7


  1. 50-Year Torresdale Supply Not Fixed in Plan, Hearing Shows, Mayor and Experts Say Ultimate Aim Is to Draw All Water From Upland Sources, Source: North American, June 7, 1924
  2. Mayor in Favor of Special Bureau for Water Extensions, Wants One of the Best Engineers of the Country at Its Head, Some One Like Swaab, Source: North American, June 9
  3. New Fairmount Dam May Furnish Power to Light Art Home, Park Engineers Negotiate for Small Hydroelectric Plant, Water To End Mud Flat, Source: North American, June 9


  1. Water Board Plan Best for City, Says Ex-Chief Davis, Former Official Declares Alarming Talk About Filters Without Foundation, Argues Against Supply From River at Yardley, Asserts That Not Cost but Expediency Should Be Controlling Factor, Source: Ledger, June 8, 1924
  2. Public Water Hearing Planned by Kendrick, Source: North American, June 13
  3. Dunlap Again Scores Experts’ Water Report, Declares Wrong Records Were Given at Last Public Hearing, Mayor Holds Conference, Has Round-Table Discussion on Plans, But Reaches No Conclusion, Source: Record, June 10
  4. Commerce Chamber Plans Water Probe, Independent Investigation Decided After Receipt of Many Letters, Action Taken Prior to Mayor Kendrick’s Arrangements for Public Hearings, Source: Inquirer, June 13


  1. So The People May Know, Source: Bulletin, June 10, 1924
  2. Mayor to Consider Next Water Hearing, Conference With Officials Today to Discuss Second Public Session, Connell Awaits Full Report of Commission and Promises No Hasty Action, Source: Record, June 9
  3. $2,000,000 Water Measure Approved, Council Committee Rejects Amendment Offered by Hall Setting Aside $50,000 for Surveys, Plans Can’t Be Pushed, Source: Bulletin, June 10
  4. City Cannot Jump Into Water Project, Hall Points to Danger of Tying Up Entire Borrowing Capacity, Dunlap Attacks Again, Source: North American, June 10, 1924
  5. Kendrick Pleased at Water Report, Opposes City Being Rushed Into Program, He Says After Round Table, Dunlap Renews Attack, Source: Ledger, June 10


  1. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, June 5
  2. Universal Water Metering, Source: Bulletin, June 9
  3. Hall Strikes Snag in Move For Funds to Aid Water Plan, Biles Defeats Effort to Obtain $50,000 for Preliminary Borings, Council Committee Sustains Director’s Stand Against Restricting Funds, Source: Inquirer, June 11
  4. Mayor Seeks New Water Discussion, Asks Additional Information of Commission to Lay Before Business Bodies, Plans $20,000,000 Saving, Source: Ledger, June 17


  1. Mayor Studying on Water Supply, In Shrine Club Address He Says Public Will Be Informed of All Plans, Kendrick Convinced the Delaware Can Be Saved for Future Service of City, Source: Inquirer, June 12
  2. $20,000,000 Cut in Cost of Water Plans, Elimination of Tunnel From Lower River Plan Reduces Total to $71,000,000, Hall Indicates Compromise and Final Action Delayed by Council Until Fall; Loan Item to Be Reduced, Source: Inquirer, June 17
  3. Plan Gives City Bristol Water Co., Holmesburg Territory Served by Old Concern Would Be Taken Over by Philadelphia, Equipment Wins Praise, Source: Ledger, June 15
  4. The Water-Supply Debate, Source: Ledger, June 18


  1. With Hooch Not Permitted How About Water? Besides Being Fit to Drink It Should Have Certain Qualities for Industrial Purposes of Various Sorts-Interesting Points as to City’s Present Supply and Its Effects on Health, Source: Record, June 15, 1924


  1. Continuation of article, “With Hooch Not Permitted How About Water?…” from 2004.014.0133, Source: Record, June 15, 1924


  1. Kendrick Water Project Camouflage, Says Dunlap, Deposed Water Chief Asserts It Will Be Used to Distract Attention From Monuments to Vanity, Source: North American, June 17, 1924
  2. City Marking Time on Water Project, Public Hearing Before Council Adjourns for Summer Seems Unlikely, Map and Details by Engineers Promised by Mayor Not Yet Ready, Source: Inquirer, June 19
  3. A Water Supply Bargain, Source: Record, June 17
  4. Hall Answers Dunlap, Says Attacks Inspired by Former Mayor Moore, Source: Inquirer, June 18
  5. Pottsville Water Co. Will Build a $1,000,000 Dam, Source not known


  1. Water Supply Data Still Lacking, Source: Inquirer, June 19, 1924
  2. Dropping of Tunnel From Water Plans to Encounter Snag, Commission to Oppose Proposed Change at Meeting in Near Future, Dunlap Says Tohickon-Perkiomen Cost Need Not Exceed $60,000,000, Source: Inquirer, June 17
  3. Officials to Inspect Water Supply Sources, Experts of Three States to Tour Along Hudson and Delaware, Source: Record, June 28, 192[2]
  4. Engineers Plan to Fight Call For Resignations, Serve Notice on Mayor Kendrick He Is Violating the Law, Source: Record, [June] 10
  5. 3 States Inspect Water Sources, Commission Will Allocate Delaware River Supply Among N.Y., N.J., and Penna., Source: Bulletin, June 28


  1. Council Forced to Halt Rush For Water Plants, Crossan Asserts Price Fixed by Appraisal is Entirely Too High, Filtered Sewage Served, Eighth District Member Insists That Suburban Companies Will Get Too Much, Source: Record, June 20
  2. “Football Tactics” of Water Board Hit, Plan of Commission Worst of Five Considered, Prominent Engineer Asserts, Ledoux Says City Is About to Repeat Altoona’s Error in Tying Up to Pollution, Source Inquirer, June 20
  3. No Time to Confuse Water Issues, Source: Inquirer, June 23
  4. Dunlap Now Raps City Hall Annex, Former Water Chief Says “Rainbow Chasers” are Juggling City Finances Recklessly, Tart Reply by Hall, Source: Bulletin, June 17


  1. Dunlap Foresees Raise in Fares, Gas and Taxes, Says Public Is So Apathetic That All Sorts of Gouges Are Being Planned, Too Many Wasteful Plans, Water Supply May Suffer Because of Many Schemes to Throw Away Money, Source: Record, June 22
  2. City’s New Sources Contain Hard Water, Industrial Leaders Stirred by Prospect of More Scale in Boilers, Schuylkill Worst, Says Ledoux; Poconos Would Give Softest Supply, Source: Inquirer, June 21
  3. Council Votes $2,000,000 For Water Scheme, Bill Provides for New Basins, Conduits and Necessary Alterations in Station Buildings, Most of Appropriation Expected to Be Used in Improvement of Torresdale Filter Plant, Source: Inquirer, June 27
  4. While the Getting is Good, Source: Record, June [?]
  5. Mr. Hasskarl Reminds Us, Source: Bulletin, July 2, 1924


  1. Hasskarl Defends Perkiomen Plan, Member of Mayor’s Commission Cites Alleged Disadvantages of Dunlap Scheme, Would Put City at Mercy of Single Source: Ultimate Cost Little Less, Source: Inquirer, July 1
  2. Dunlap Again Attacks Mayor’s Water Report, Replies to Hasskarl Article, Showing Commissioner Changed Mind Since 1920, Everything is Too Vague, No Details Given to Public, Except That Cost Will Be Almost $100,000,000, Source: Record, July 2
  3. Photo title: Noted Engineer Dies, caption: John C. Trautwine, Jr. One of America’s foremost engineers and former chief of the Water Bureau, who died in the Lankenau Hospital yesterday, Source: Ledger, July 5, 1924
  4. Article attached to above photo, J.C. Trautwine, Jr., Engineer, Is Dead, Two Months’ Illness Ends Life of Former Water Chief of Philadelphia, Leaves Widow and a Son, Source: Ledger, July 5, 1924
  5. Details of Water Report Withheld, Data Mayor Promised Not Made Public Until Fall, Plan $10,000,000 Loan, Source: North American, July 12
  6. Cleveland Folk Rush Springs for water, Phenol and Chlorine in Lake Erie Make It Unfit for Domestic Use, Source: North American, March 7


  1. Hall Denies Water Data is Held Back, Indignant That $10,000,000 Loan Might Be “Shoved Through,” Extended Report on New Supply Sources May Not Be Made Public Until Fall, Source not known, July 12
  2. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, July 10
  3. The Mysterious Water Program, Source: Bulletin, July 12, 1924
  4. OK City Plan to Buy Three Water Concerns, Ainey and Clement Will Recommend Sanction to Public Service Commission, Source: Record, July 26


  1. Photo of Alexander Murdoch, Birthday Bulletin, The Inquirer congratulates the chief of the Water Bureau, Source: Inquirer, June 28
  2. Homes Are Flooded When Water Main Bursts on 60th St., Families Forced to Seek Shelter Elsewhere When Cellars Are Submerged, Another Damaging Break at Seventh and Market, Loss on West Side Put at $20,000-Traffic Delayed Until 6 a.m., Source: Ledger, July 25
  3. Schuylkill Canal Observes Birthday, Source: Ledger, July 6
  4. Council Sets a Bad Precedent, Source: Inquirer, June 28
  5. Woman Rescued in Flooded Cellar, Almost Drowns, Imprisoned by Falling Trunk, When Main Bursts on 60th St., Homes Are Inundated, Source: Bulletin, July 25
  6. Water Main Bursts, Cellars Flooded and Streets Covered Several Inches Deep, Source: Inquirer, July 30


  1. Rain-Filled Sewers Choke and Crack, Cellars Inundated and Store-keeper Inhales Gas When Stock is Damaged, Storm Maroons Autos and Camden Ferry Buses Halt; Bathing Beach Opens, Source: Inquirer, July 14
  2. Why Not a Water District? Source: Bulletin, July 30, 1924
  3. Old Water Contract Knocked Out by Court, Source: Record, July 15
  4. City Pays $854,610 For Water Works, Purchase of Philadelphia and Bristol and Disston and Holmesburg Companies Completed, Will Extend System, Source: Ledger, July 31
  5. Lower Water Rates Assured Northeast, City Will Save $75,000 a Year Thru Holmesburg Purchase, Affects 4000 Families, Source: North American, July 31
  6. Checking River Pollution, Source: Bulletin, August 2
  7. Kendrick Asks More Water Plan Details, Commissioners to Supply Data for Fixing Amount in Loan, $7,500,000 Now Propose, Source: North American, August [7]
  8. Water Tower Operated, Mayor Sees Demonstration of New Fire-Fighting Apparatus, Source: Inquirer, August 7


  1. City Water for the Northeast, Source: Inquirer, August 1, 1924
  2. More Delay on the Water Report, Source: Inquirer, August 8
  3. Water Commission to Give Full Data at Mayor’s Demand, Detailed Report of New Supply System Promised Next Month, Kendrick Tells Members Information is Necessary in Framing Loan Bill, Source: Inquirer, August [?]
  4. All the Facts Wanted, Source: Bulletin, August 7, 1924
  5. Manayunk Mill Owners Move For More Water, Delegation Tells Mayor Present Supply is Inadequate for Serious Fire, Source: Inquirer, August 26


  1. Water Commission Members Not Paid, Mayor Believed Holding Back Checks Until Given More Data on Supply Report; Kendrick Expresses Dissatisfaction With Recommendations, Source: Inquirer, August 8, 1924
  2. Mayor Asks More Facts About Big Water Scheme, No Item in Proposed Loan Bill Until Promised Details Are Given, Source: Record, August 7
  3. Bathing Beach Closing and Pollution Denied, Source: Inquirer, August 25
  4. Flood Endangers Many as Street Main Breaks, Water Fills Cellars of Several Buildings at Sixtieth and Market Streets, Neighbor Rescues Woman, Youth Dons His Bathing Suit to Salvage Radio Sets-Damage Totals $25,000, Source: Record, July 26
  5. Water Main Bids Opened, Source: Inquirer, August 27
  6. Discuss Northeast Water Purchases, Commissioners Ainey and Clement Favor City’s Plan to Take Over Three Companies, Source: Ledger, July 21
  7. City to Build Sewer to Protect Water Supply, Bids Opened Tomorrow for Pennypack Creek to Drain 2000 Acres, Source: Record, August 26


  1. $60,000 Damage as Main Bursts in Fourth Street, Hole Fifteen Feet in Diameter Torn in Pavement at Girard Avenue, Geyser Spouts 2 ½ Hours and Floods Cellars, Trolley Line Held Up and Hundreds Going to Work Are Delayed, Source: Ledger, August 20, 1924
  2. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, August 22
  3. Problem of Water Supply Worries West Chester, Drought Threatens Town Unless Council Acts Very Quickly, Source: Ledger, August 24
  4. Deny Water Bill Rumor, Commission’s Report Not Rejected by Kendrick, Member Says, Source: Bulletin, August 28
  5. Water Supply Contract to Be Awarded Soon, McHugh Brothers Bid Low on Important Work in Northeast, Source: Record, August 7


  1. Our Dose of Chlorine, Source: Bulletin, August 13, 1924
  2. Mayor Rejects Plan of Engineers For New Water System, Demands Pure Supply Be Assured to All Sections, Source: North American, August 28
  3. Water Board Turns to Upper Delaware, Whispers City Hall, Secret Meeting Held in Swaab’s Office; Information is Refused, Rumored New Scheme is Said to Tally With Dunlap Supply Project, Source: Inquirer, August 28
  4. Denies Delaware Water is Banned, Kendrick Spikes Report New Supply Plans Exclude Upper River, Gives Data on Project, Source: Ledger, August 29
  5. Water Commission Combines 2 Plans in Supply Report, Both Upper Delaware and Tohickon Perkiomen Sheds Included, Revision of Scheme Said to Have Been Dictated by Mayor Kendrick, Source: Inquirer, August 29
  6. Water Pipe of Paper Invented in France, Source: North American, September 8


  1. The Water Question, Source: Bulletin, September 24, 1924


  1. New Water Plan to Have Features Urged by Dunlap, Mayor Asks Commission for Information on Use of the Neshaminy; Council Changes, Source: North American, August [2]0
  2. Explains Water Report, Mayor Says It Will Give Additional Data on New Sources, Source: Bulletin, August [2]0
  3. Kendrick Denies Water Plan Shift, Disclaims Report Torresdale Project Will Be Abandoned for Others, Original Supply Held, Source: Ledger, September 9
  4. A Word of Warning on Water Supply Plans, Source: Inquirer, September 4
  5. Water Plans Favored, Public Service Board for City Purchase in Northeast, Source: Inquirer, [?] 26
    The Water Question, Source: Bulletin, September 24, 1924


  1. Water Body’s Plan For City Stands, Mayor Announces, Tohickon-Perkiomen Sheds and Lower Delaware River Will Be Supply Sources, Engineers’ Full Report to Be Ready by Sept. 15, Swaab Says First Steps to New System, Lasting Fifty Years, Will Cost $100,000,000, Source: Ledger, August 30
  2. Mayor Gets Report on Water Supply, Commission’s Findings Are Result of Three Months Detailed Study, All Phases of Situation Covered in Survey to Be Made Public Tomorrow, Source: Inquirer, September 17
  3. Water Experts Pare Estimates to $75,000,000, High Pressure Tunnel Dropped by Commission in Final Report Made to Mayor, Alternative Recommendations to Go to Council Today; Former Chief Davis Suggested for Job, Source: Inquirer, September 18
  4. Mayor Reserves Decision on Water, Kendrick and Councilmen Will Confer in Study of Commission’s Report, Guard Against Errors, Source: Ledger, September 19


  1. Dunlap Denounces Plan as Nonsense, Seen $40,000,000 Waste and Filtered Sewage for Bulk of People for 60 Years, Blames Hall’s “Bullheadedness” for Adherence to Perkiomen Proposal, Source: Inquirer, September 19
  2. Mayor Bans Hasty Decision on Water, Declares City Will Not Be Rushed Into Any One of Si[?] Projects Outlined, Will Consider Commission’s Report at Conference With Councilmen Next Week, Source: Inquirer, September 20
  3. Dunlap Disputes Murdock on Water, ‘Seventh Ward Stuff’, He Says of Statement Delaware at Torresdale is Pure, Bureau Head Replies, Source: Bulletin, September 23
  4. Chester Council Fights Water Company Rates, Bitter Contest Forecast in Appeal to State Utility Commission, Source: Ledger, September 28


  1. Dunlap Hurl[s] New Water Plan Attack, Former Chief Says Commission’s Scheme Cannot Be Regarded Seriously; Exaggerated Cost of Perkiomen Project Laid to Interests Insistent on Its Use, Source: Inquirer, September 20
  2. Want More Water Supply, Upper Darby Township Will Complain to Service Commission, Source: Bulletin, August 11
  3. Urges Delaware for All Water, Dr. Murdock Insists Torresdale Plant Can Supply City and Save $79,000,000, Pollution “Imagined,” Source: Ledger, September 21
  4. Murdock Clarifies New Water Plans, Chief Says Commission Never Contemplated Entire Lower Delaware Supply, System Based on Ultimate Abolition of Torresdale Intake Recommended, Source: Inquirer, September 22


  1. Now Comes the Water Scheme, Source: Record, September 20, 1924 (also on 2004.014.0153)


  1. Chamber to Study Final Water Plan, Committee, Including Engineers, to Confer With Kendrick’s Commission, Murdock Refuses to Answer Further Attacks or Criticism of Report, Source: Inquirer, September 24
  2. Tacony Water Main Bursts, Streets Flooded Near State Road and Magee St., Source: Bulletin, September 27


  1. Perkiomen Plan is Urged in Final Report on Water, Commission Reaffirms Recommendation for New City System to Cost $99,000,000 Despite Storm of Criticism Last May When Location First Was Proposed; Use of Contaminated River Opposed, Five Other Possible Sources Are Listed in Findings Which Go From Mayor to Council; Dunlap Proposal, While Declared Cheaper, Is Rejected Because Much Pumping Would Be Necessary, Source: Inquirer, September 19, 1924


  1. Continuation of article from 2004.014.0154, Source: Inquirer, September 19, 1924
  2. Map Shows How Various Water Plans Would Supply City, Source: Bulletin, September 17 [148 kb]


  1. Continuation of article from 2004.014.0154 and 2004.014.0155, “Perkiomen Plan is Urged in Final Report on Water,” Source: Inquirer, September 19, 1924


  1. Continuation of article from 2004.014.0154 – 2004.014.0156, “Perkiomen Plan is Urged in Final Report on Water,” Source: Inquirer, September 19, 1924
  2. Map title: City Water Supply Plan, caption: The City Water Commission, in a supplementary report made yesterday to Mayor Kendrick repeated its recommendation for the Perkiomen-Tohickon-Delaware project. The dotted line in the map indicates the proposed aqueduct from the Perkiomen area to the Roslyn reservoir…, Source not known
  3. Reading Water Muddle Still Worries Politicians, First-Class Engineers Refuse to Be Made Football of Politics, Source: Ledger, September 28
    Says Water Board Ignored 4 Sections, Dunlap Declares West Phila., Germantown, Chestnut Hill, and Roxborough are ‘Let Out’, Charges Cost Errors, Source: Bulletin, September 23


  1. Getting at the Facts About Water, Source: Inquirer, September 17, 1924
  2. Map title: Project Urged by Commission, caption: The map reproduced herewith reveals the extensive scope of the City Water Commission’s plans for a city supply for the next fifty years…shows the upper Delaware and upper Lehigh watershed…, Source: Inquirer, September 19
  3. Would Buy Water System, Engineer Recommends Purchase by New Jersey Towns, Source: Bulletin, October 2
  4. Dunlap Sees Bar to Filter Repairs, Says City Charter Prohibits Use of $5,000,000 in Loan Bill for This Purpose, Water Report Shelved, Source: Bulletin, October 4
  5. Water Commission Report Pickled in Council Committee, No Prospect That It Will Ever Be Brought to Light, Advocates Grow Weary, Source: North American, October 4, 1924
  6. Current Topics of the Town, Source: Ledger, October 7


  1. New Water System Plans Sidetracked, No Action is Expected for Weeks and Probably Not Till Next Year, Council Sends $99,000,000 Project Report to Public Works Committee, Source: Inquirer, October [?]
  2. Typhoid Victim Dies, Both Brought to City From Jersey Shore Resort Where They Contracted Disease, Source: North American, October 4
  3. Northeast Warned of Polluted Water, Dunlap Makes Sectional Appeal in Frankford Against Commission Report, Former Bureau Chief Opposes Enlarged Torresdale Filters and Charges Mis-statements, Source: Inquirer, October 7
  4. Scientists Rap City’s Costly Water Plan, Call for Elimination of River Pollution as Means for Solving Problem, Source: Record, October 15
  5. The City’s Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, October 8, 1924


  1. The City’s Water Supply, Source: Ledger, October 6
  2. Sewage Treatment by New Plan Tried, Method Being Worked Out at Laboratories of Department of Public Works, Pollution of Rivers Will Be Ended When Program is Completed, Source: Inquirer, October 16
    Uncoiling of the Water Snake, Source: Record, October 7
  3. Victory Over Typhoid, Source: Bulletin, no date given
  4. Watch the Water Snake, Source: Record, October 22
  5. Water Plan Criticisms, Intimation of Land Speculation by Financial Interests Withdrawn by Board of Trade Committee, Source: Ledger, October 27


  1. Adequate Water Supply, Source: Ledger, no date given
  2. $91,500,000, Source: Record, October 9
  3. Engineer Contends Nearby Water Use Safe and Feasible, Col. George A. Johnson Urges Purified Supply From Lower Delaware, Proposed Sewerage and Sewage Disposal Program Obviate Distant Sources, Source not known
  4. Schuylkill Spanned by 48-Inch Water Pipes to West Phila., City Engineers Utilize Piers of Old Girard Avenue Bridge, Necessity of Tunnel Obviated by Using Part of Present Structure, Source: Inquirer, October 12
  5. Scrap New Water Plans, Experts S[ay], Unnamed Engineers Declare City’s Supply Can Be Taken From Delaware, Trade Board Gets Report, Source: Ledger, October 20
  6. Far-Sightedness, Source: Bulletin, October 30, 1924


  1. Cartoon, caption: "The More I Hear About It, The Better I Like It.” Source: Record, October 22
  2. Schuylkill Bridge to Carry Big Main, Independent Span at Girard Avenue Solves a Great Engineering Problem, Source: Ledger, October 12
  3. Photo attached to above article, “Schuylkill Bridge to Carry…,” title: Links City’s Water Supply Bases, caption: The new 48-inch water main suspended under the Girard Avenue Bridge across the Schuylkill is shown above. The main links the West Philadelphia supply with that on the east side of the river, and was constructed at a cost of $250,000, Source: Ledger, October 12
  4. Hasskarl Has New Job, Philadelphia Engineer Employed by Chicago for Sewage Operation, Source: Inquirer, January 8
  5. State Engineers to View Phila. Water Project, Source: North American, October 24
  6. Dunlap Asked to Inspect Watershed, 2-Day Visit to Perkiomen-Tohickon Project is Now Planned, Mayor Invites Council, Source: North American, October 22
  7. Suburban Towns to Get More Water, Company to Lay New Main in Eastern Delaware County, More Pumps Promised, Source: North American, October 24


  1. Dunlap Not Invited to Take Water Trip, Hall Denies Ex-Bureau Chief’s Charge He Had Him Barred From Party, Source: North American, October 28
  2. Future Water Supply, Suppose Estimates of the City’s Population Fifty Years Hence Prove Incorrect? Source: Ledger, October 28
  3. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, no date given
  4. Pollution Prevention Gains Reported in Delaware River, Source: Inquirer, October 31
  5. Northeast Water Needs, Source: Bulletin, [January] 3


  1. City Heads to Visit Sources of Water, Mayor, Cabinet and Council to Tour Perkiomen-Tohickon and Neshaminy Sheds, Repaving of Central City Broached at Round Table as Traffic Relief Move, Source: Inquirer, October 21, 1924
  2. Dunlap is Invited On Watershed Trip, Mayor Asks Former Chief of Bureau to Go With Party to Inspect Sites, Both Perkiomen-Tohickon and Neshaminy-Delaware Locations to be Viewed, Source: Inquirer, October 22
  3. Dunlap Not to See Sources of Water, Former Bureau Chief Out of Mayor’s Inspection Party on Trip Today, Blames Hall for Omission of Invitation; Council Head Denies Charge, Source: Inquirer, October 23
  4. Water Problem Discussed, Chamber of Commerce Committee Considers Experts’ Report on Supply, Source: Ledger, [October 22]


  1. Cartoon, caption: A Voyage of Discovery, Source: Record, October 29, 1924
  2. Water--And the Cost of It, Source: Inquirer, October 29
  3. Omens and the Water Supply Projects, Source: Inquirer, October 30
  4. 6 Years to Finish Big Water Project, Commissioner Tells Mayor, on Inspection Tour, of Perkiomen Proposal, Four Plans Considered, Source: Ledger, October 29


  1. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, October 28
  2. Water Inspection Finds Creeks Dry, Mayor, Councilmen and Engineers, Seeking Moisture Choke on Dust, $91,500,000 Plan Hurt, Members of Party Argue Over Sites, With All Details Unsettled, Mayor Calls Conference, All Parties Will Meet Friday to Decide on Some Program for City to Follow, Source: Record, October 29
  3. Break in Water Main Floods Cellars of Clubs, Source: Record, November 18


  1. Water Sources Inspected to Speed Decision, Mayor Tells Big Party That Task Facing City Will Take Six Years, Engineers and Officials Examine Various Streams, While a Definite Program is Sought, Metering System Will Be Extended, Conference Coming Friday, Engineers Urge Councilmen to Accept Perkiomen-Tohickon Project, Source: Ledger, October 29
  2. Photo attached to above article, title: City Officials Inspect Water Supply Sites, caption: Mayor Kendrick and a party of Councilmen, engineers and members of the Water Supply Commission yesterday made the first of a two-day inspection tour of the Perkiomen-Tohickon watersheds…,Source: Ledger, October 29
  3. Dunlap Backs Water Plan, Former Bureau Chief Sees Need of High Pressure in City’s Center, Source: Bulletin, October 31


  1. City Water Supply Selection Expected to Be Made Friday, Mayor’s Announcement Follows Official Inspection, Neshaminy and Upper Delaware Watersheds to Be Viewed on Trip Today, Source: Inquirer, October 2[6]
  2. Neshaminy Pleases City Survey Party, Abundance of Pure Water Forms Striking Contrast With Arid Perkiomen Sources, Plan Would Cost Less, Program Backed by Dunlap Boosted by Impressions Received by Party, Conference Tomorrow, Decision May be Reached at Session to Be Held in Mayor’s Office, Source: Record, October 30


  1. Mayor Sees Sites For Supply Dams, Visits Perkiomen Valley With Officials Interested in New Water System, Conference on Friday, Source: North American, October 29
  2. Phila. May Use Neshaminy and Tohickon Water, Project Favored by Officials Is Modification of Plan 3 in Water Commission Report and Would Provide Added Supply From Upper Delaware, Twenty Miles Above Yardley, Hall Says $50,000,000 Can Be Borrowed, But Would Be Careful to Avoid Wrong Start; Seventy Civic Heads Make Two-Day Inspection Trip; Conference Is to Be Held Today, Source: Inquirer, October 30
  3. Girard’s Talk of the Day, Source: Inquirer, November 10


  1. City to Go Slowly on Water Project, Officials’ Inspection of Proposed Sources Shows Need of Caution, Source: North American, [?] 1924
  2. Mayor Raps Critics of Water Report, Kendrick Indignantly Replies to Exceptions Taken by Board of Trade, Dereliction in Sewage Disposal Agreement and Other Charges Flatly Denied, Source: Inquirer, November 1
  3. Board to Protect Water-Plan Critic, Trade Body Refuses to Name Engineer Who Wrote Letter Attacking Administration, Answers Mayor’s Rebuke, Source: Ledger, November 6
  4. Looking for Water, Source: Bulletin, October 29
  5. Water, Source: Ledger, October 30, 1924


  1. Mayor Gets Trade Body’s Water Note, Reply Ignores Kendrick’s Request for Name of Engineer Who Authorized Statement, Denies Slap at Experts, Source: Bulletin, November 7, 1924
  2. City Expert Says River Water Can Be Purified, Engineer Allen Forced to Admit Delaware Can Be Made Safe Supply Source, Stream to Be Cleared, Northeast Business Men Advised of Sewage Disposal Plans of Nearby Cities, Source: Record, November 4
  3. Water Systems in Penna. Praised, Shore Convention Told This State Leads Country to Filtration Plants, Factory Waste Menace, Source: Ledger, October 31
  4. Want More Water Supply, Lack of Adequate Facilities in Tacony and Holmesburg Cited, Source: Ledger, November 7
  5. Still Waiting to Be Shown, Source: Bulletin, October 31, 1924
  6. Tacony’s Water Row Up To Council, Source: Ledger, November 3, 1924


  1. Experts’ Big Plan For Water Does Not End Filtration, Mayor and Party Assured Perkiomen-Tohickon Supply Must Be Purified Still Further, Neshaminy Dam Sites Inspected by Officials, Source: Ledger, October 30
  2. Mayor and Experts to Discuss Water, Conference Today Will Be With Four City Officials on All Plans Offered, Meeting With Councilmen on Supply for Philadelphia Put Off Till Next Week, Source: Inquirer, October 31
  3. Lehigh Canal Urged in City Water Plan, Jacob J. Seeds Suggests Use as Open Aqueduct for Upper Delaware Supply, Former Councilman Arraigns Perkiomen and Neshaminy on Cost and Availability, Source: Inquirer, November 10
    Commission Speeds Water Supply Plan in Brief Discussion, Mayor Announces Council Will Receive Recommended System Soon, “Clean-up Conference” With Members of Advisory Body Alone Delays Submission, Source: Inquirer, November 11


  1. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, November 8
  2. Water Supply Fundamentals, Source: Record, November 13
  3. Merchants Ask Water Scheme Be Abandoned, Declare $90,000,000 Project Is Shown to Be Entirely Unnecessary, Waste of Public Money, All That Is Needed Is Improvement and Enlargement of Torresdale Filters, Source: Record, November 14
  4. What Price Perkiomen Pasture? Source: Bulletin, November 8
  5. Put Water Purchase Plan Up To Collingswood Citizens, Source: Record, November 12
  6. May Use 3 Water Sources, Mayor Says $99,000,000 Program Will Go to Council Soon, Source: Bulletin, November 11


  1. Some Things That Must be Done, Source: Inquirer, November 17
  2. In The Day’s News, Source: Ledger, November 18, 1924
  3. The Voice of the Taxpayers, Source: Record, November 15
  4. Hall Explains New Water Financing, Says Bonds Will Be a Charge on City’s Borrowing Capacity Only Till System is Completed, Like Subway Situation, Source: Ledger, November 12
  5. The Northeast Protests, Source: Bulletin, November 14
  6. Favor Buying Water Plant, Collingswood Committee Approves City Operation – Call Meeting, Source: Bulletin, November 11


  1. The “Filtered Sewage” Fake, Source: Record: November 19
  2. Water Supply in the School, There Ought to Be Plenty if the Children Are to Be Comfortable, Source: Record, November 17
  3. Universal Metering of Water Opposed, Former Chief Dunlap Says It Will Never Reduce Waste Materially, Engineers Debate Problem of Conservation; Quality Asserted Prime Need, Source: Inquirer, November 29
  4. Experts See End of Water Waste, Use of Meters Would Stop Leaks and Increase Revenue, Say Visiting Engineers, Will Report to Mayor, Source: Ledger, November 19
  5. Hall Praises Water Bureau For Its Saving of $350,000, Source: Ledger, November 20
  6. Water Meters? Source: Ledger, November 20
  7. A Friend of the Taxpayers, Source: Record, November 21


  1. Chart, title: How a Modern Sewage Disposal Plant Works. Caption: Steps in the treatment of sewage, as it will be done in Philadelphia’s completed plants before the matter is emptied into the Delaware River, are shown in this illustration. Removal of germs, however, is not contemplated in the process, according to Fred C. Dunlap…, Source: Inquirer, November 21, 1924
  2. Dunlap Opposes New Sewage Plan, Engineer Tells Chemical Society Proposed Treatment Will Not Improve Water, [H]opeless to Attempt to Make Delaware Non-Carrier of Disease, He Says, Source: Inquirer, November 21


  1. Water Bureau “Snaps” Cut Out by Murdock, Has Council Lop Off 193 Positions at a Saving of $112,744 a Year in Payroll, Street Cleaning Jump, Salary Increases in Survey Bureau Urged-Changes in Bureau of City Property, Source: Record, November 20
  2. Street Cleaning Bureau Formed as Budget is Voted, Savings in Water Bureau Will Offset $7,000,000 Asked for New Dept.; to Rush Highway Repairs, Source: North American, November 20
  3. Filtered Sewage by Any Other Name, Source: Inquirer, November 24
  4. Says Meters Would End Double Waste of Water, Bureau Estimates Saving at 78,000,000 Gallons Daily, Source: Ledger, November 21
  5. Water Rights, Source: Bulletin, November 20
  6. An Unusual Bureau Chief, Source: Bulletin, November 20


  1. New York Seeking Delaware Supply, Plan of Metropolis to Take Billion Gallons Daily From River Opposed by Phila. Officials, May Reach Agreement, Series of Conferences Under Way Expected to Bring About Tri-State Water Treaty, Source not known
  2. Water Waste, Source: Ledger, November 22, 1924
  3. Sewage Disposal, Source: Bulletin, November 22
    Court Holds Churches Liable for Water Rent, Source: North American, November 22
  4. Oppose N.Y. Water Plan, Mayor Kendrick to Discuss Upper Delaware Project With Commission, Source: Bulletin, November 28
  5. “Moonshine” About Water, Source: Bulletin, November 28, 1924
  6. Water Meters, Source: Bulletin, November 19
  7. 8 Water Companies Raise Rates in State, Consumers in Five Counties Affected by New Schedule; Phone Charges Higher, Too, Source: North American, December 10
  8. Held For Water Power, Source: Ledger, December 21
  9. Enough Water For All, Source: Bulletin, December 8, 1924
  10. Must Seek More Water With Population Growth, Situation in New Jersey Discussed by Governor and Commissioners, Source: Record, December 12
  11. Delaware Water Treaty is Nearing Completion, Tri-State Commission Expects to Adopt Measure in Near Future, Source: Ledger, December 6


  1. Three States Split Delaware Waters, Treaty Agreed Upon at Shore Parley Gives Each One-third of Flow, Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey in Pact to Settle Vexed Question, Source: Inquirer, December 6
  2. Order for Water Accounts Annoys City Officials, Say Proposed New System Needless Expense to Taxpayers, Source: Record, November 28
  3. Three States to Claim Delaware River Water, Commission Asks Silzer to Arrange Conference on Policy, Source: Record, December 5
  4. Engineer to Get Pay for City Job in 1919, George W. Fuller Made Survey of Queen Lane Filters; Bill is $999.95, Source: North American, December 18
  5. Break in Main Cuts Off Roxborough Water Supply, Big Section of City Goes Without Fluid for Several Hours, Source: Record, December 20
  6. Water Commission Survey Fails to Satisfy Kendrick, Hazen Says Situation is Due to “Physical Reasons Beyond Our Control”, Matter Shelved Since Report Made in Summer, J. Waldo Smith Asserts He Knows of No Other Source Than That Recommended, Source: Ledger, December 20
  7. Water, Water Everywhere, But – Source: Bulletin, December 13
  8. Why Waste $100,000,000? Source: Record, December 20
  9. Refuses to Discuss Water, Mayor Won’t Talk on Reports Until Council Gets His Recommendations, Source: Bulletin, December 20


  1. Mayor to Announce Water Views Soon, Message to Council on Supply Problem Promised Before End of Year, Administration Not Expected to Indorse Commission Report in Full, Source: Inquirer, December 10
  2. Men and Things, Northeast Tax Payers Protest Unnecessary Millions for Water, Source: Bulletin, December 17
  3. Another Water Survey May Be Asked By Mayor, Hagen Declares City Executive Is Dissatisfied With Perkiomen-Tohickon Plan, Proposal Was Shelved Several Months Ago, Hall Explains Reason for Delay, but Kendrick Remains Silent on Question, Source: Ledger, December 21
  4. Water Mains Convey Wanamaker Music, Inspectors Heard Music Clearly by Putting ‘Aqua-phone’ on Pipes, Source: North American, December 20
  5. Citizens O.K. Purchase of Local Water System, Source: Record, December 12
  6. Water Project Approved, Collingswood Votes Unanimously in Favor of Purchase of Plant, Source: Ledger, December 13


  1. Cartoon, caption: “Ain’t I to Be In It?” Source: Record, December 29, 1924
  2. May Give Up New Water Source Now, City Hall Hears Rumor Mayor Will Recommend Improvement at Torresdale for the Present, Study Plans Further, Source: Bulletin, December 24
  3. No Water Decision Before Next year, Mayor Reported Dissatisfied With Experts’ Reports on Supply Sources, Funds in Hand to Improve Present Plants; No Legislative Aid to Be Sought, Source: Inquirer, December 27
  4. The Year at City Hall, Source: Bulletin, December 31
  5. Our Water Supply, Delay in Decision Is Increasing the Ultimate Cost to the City, Source: Ledger, December 30


  1. The Scotching of the Water Snake, Source: Record, December 2[?]
  2. Mayor May Call in New Water Experts, Said to Be Dissatisfied With Report of His First Commission, Source: North American, December 27
  3. Mayor May Drop Gigantic Water Supply Project, $99,500,000 Plan Likely to Be Indefinitely Postponed by Kendrick, Too Costly for Tax Rate, Interest and Sinking Fund Charges Would be Heavy Drain on Revenues, Enlarge Present Plants, For Some Years, at Least, There Can Be No Wandering Far Off for Water, Source: Record, December 27
  4. City Water Supply a Crime Insurance Official Says, Source: North American, December 10
  5. Delaware Water Treaty, Tri-state Commission May Announce Diversion Plans This Month, Source: Ledger, December 20



  1. Mayor Advises Further Delay in Water Plan, Virtual Shelving of Gigantic System of Supply is Urged Upon Council, Kendrick Personally Reviews Accomplishments and Tells of Aims; League Island Site Favored for Stadium, Source: Record, December 31
  2. Hasskarl Backs Mayor on Water, Commissioner Regrets Proposed Delay in Perkiomen-Tohickon Project, Address Well Received, Source: Ledger, December 31
  3. Mayor and Hall Reveal Big Plans, Tell of Great City Projects at New year Reception in City Hall, Mrs. Kendrick Speaks, Enormous Crowd Files in and Out of Mayor’s Office to Greet Executive, Source: Record, January 1, 1925
  4. Eight Inches of Water in Hospital Basement, Jefferson Laundry Damaged When Street Water Main Bursts, Source: Inquirer, January 5
  5. Burst Water Main Supply, Source: Inquirer, December 24
  6. Shawmont Pump Station Doomed, City Also Plans to Increase Queen Lane Station at Cost of $500,000, Meter Saving Cited, Source: Bulletin, January 2
  7. Adequate Water Supply for Outlying Wards, City Opens Bids for Laying Pipes Over Miles of Streets, Source: Ledger, January 1


  1. How Much Water Will Meterage Save? Source: Inquirer, January 2
  2. Mayor Kendrick and the Water Supply, Source: Inquirer, January 2
  3. Stop the Water Waste, Source: Record, January 3, 1925
  4. Our Enviable Typhoid Record, Source: Record, January 16
  5. The Water Problem, Source: Bulletin, January 13, 1925
  6. Tax Bills By Mail, Source: Bulletin, January 15
  7. Says Meters Would Solve Water Problem, Source: Record, January 3


  1. Water Source Project Delay Held Perilous, Five Experts Agree Extreme Danger to City Supply Lies in In-action, Perkiomen-Tohickon Basin-Lower Delaware Recommendation of Mayor’s Commission Assailed, Source: Inquirer, January 17
  2. Dunlap Says Experts O.K. His Water Views, Three at ‘Engineers Symposium’ for Removal of Torresdale Intake, Source: North American, January 20, 1925
  3. City To Improve Pumping Station at Lardner’s Point, Source: Record, January 20


  1. Experts for Quick Action on Water, Engineers, Nearer Harmony Than Ever Before, Warn of Danger Entailed by Delay, Fuller Outlines System, Source: Bulletin, January 17, 1925


  1. Continuation of article from 2004.014.0186, Source: Bulletin, January 17, 1925
  2. The City’s Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, January 19
  3. Improving Water System is Planned, Biles Prepares to Launch Extensive Program of Work in City, Bids to Be Received Tuesday for Pipe Replacement and Construction, Source: Inquirer, January 8
  4. Use of Perkiomen Laid to “Influence,” Dunlap Says Water Commission Feared Council Would Ignore Any Other Plan, Former Bureau Chief Asserts Both Report and Amendment Face Scrap Pile, Source: Inquirer, January 20
  5. Delaware Water Pact is Drafted, Agreement Will Allot Fair Portion to Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey, City’s Share Adequate, Source: Bulletin, January 23
  6. Conserving the Delaware, Source: Bulletin, January 26


  1. New Water Supply May Come From Historic Land, Green Lane and Its Famous Forge in the Early Days-A Dam There 175 Years Ago, Source: Ledger, January 23
  2. Tap the Poconos Urged by Raff, Builder Says That Would Solve the City’s Water Problem for All Time, Outlines of His Plan, Estimates Cost at $116,000,000 and Ridicules Figures of Water Commission, Source: Record, January 22
  3. Men and Things, Source: Bulletin, January 24
  4. The $116,000,000 Panacea, Source: Record, January 23
  5. City Water Supply Held Health Peril, Torresdale Intake Should Be Abandoned; Warning Given by Dr. Horn, Source: Inquirer, January 23


  1. Would Put Intake Further Up River, Isaac S. Walker, Chester Water Chief, Feels This Would End Delaware Sewage Menace Here, Urges 3-Mile Shift, Source: Bulletin, January 19
  2. Water Treaty Giving 3 States Supply Signed, Phila. To Be Big Gainer by Agreement Reached by Delaware River Commission, Jersey’s Troubles Also to End; Power Development Projects Will Not Be Interfered With, Source: Inquirer, January 26
  3. A Structure Without Foundations, Source: Record, January 19
  4. Prepare Meter Plans, Bureau Working Mayor’s Outline for Saving Water, Source: Ledger, January 28
  5. [?]m’Hugh Low Bidder on Water Supply Mains, Source: Record, January 23


  1. Tri-State Pact to Give City Big Water Supply, Billion Gallons Daily From Delaware River Apportioned to This State, Jersey, N.Y., 240,000,000 Gallons Extra This City’s Allotment, Treaty Just Signed Involves an Expenditure of $500,000,000 in 100 Years, Source: Ledger, January 26
  2. Water Source Grab Charged to Gotham, Phila. Warned to Get Metropolitan Commission Named Now Through Legislature, Seizure of Most of Delaware Headwaters Is Feared by Engineer, Source: Inquirer, January 27
  3. Water Agreement Insures Big Supply for Next 100 Years, Mayor’s Commission and Other Officials Gratified by Three States’ Act, Flow Can Meet All Needs Even in Time of Drought, Source: Ledger, January 27
  4. The Water Treaty, Source: Record, January 27


  1. See Water Pact as Forward Step, City Officials Believe Agreement Will Aid Selection of New Supply for City, Dunlap’s View Differs, Source: Bulletin, January 26
  2. New Water Pact Protects Phila., City Officials Well Pleased, Source: Record, January 27
  3. Three States Divide Delaware River, Source: Inquirer, January 27, 1925
    Mayor Will Push Water Meter Plan, Believes Consumption Can Be Largely Cut by Use of System, Opposed by Dunlap, Source: North American, January 28
  4. High-Spouting Geyser Near 12th and Market, Cold Cracked Water Main Emits Spectacular but Treacherous Flow, Source: Inquirer, January 29


  1. City’s Share in Water of Delaware 60,000,000 Gals., Tri-State Pact Defines Legal Rights to Use of the Stream, Engineers Declare, Source: North American, January 21, 1925
  2. Speed Ratification of Water Pact, Widespread Satisfaction Voiced Over Tri-State Agreement on River, Now Up to Legislatures, Source: Ledger, January 27
  3. Billions of Gallons of Water in The Daily Flow of the Delaware, Source: Bulletin, January 28


  1. Assurance of Water, Source: North American, January 27
  2. Delaware River Water, Source: Ledger, January 27
  3. Tri-State Agreement on The Delaware River, A Compromise That Will Have to Be Thoroughly Examined Before It Is Ratified by Pennsylvania, Source: Ledger, January 27
  4. States Share in Division of Water, Details of the Tri-State Pact for Apportioning Waters of the Delaware Given Out, Now Up to Legislatures, Sanitary Regulations and Reforestation Plans Are Included in Agreement, Source: Record, January 28
  5. Medals Given Engineers, Six in City Service Are Honored at Annual Dinner, Source: Ledger, January 30


  1. Water Development Restrictions Made in Tri-State Pact, Interior Streams May Be Developed, But Total is Limited, Permits Storage Dams, Source: North American, January 28
  2. Photo title: Phila.’s Water Carrier of 1799, caption: A section of water pipe (wooden) used here in 1799 unearthed by the new bridge builders at Front and Race Streets. Mary Shechan and Juliet Moorhouse are “looking it over,” Source: Ledger, January [?], 1925
  3. Article attached to the above photo, Aqueduct of 1799 Unearthed Here, Relic of Olden Philadelphia Discovered in Path of Delaware River Bridge, First Water System, Source: Ledger, January [?], 1925
  4. First Water Work Relic Unearthed, Pipe of Original City Main, Laid in 1799, Recalls Strenuous Opposition to Project, Dug at 4th Near Race, Source: Bulletin, January 31
    Named to City Berths, Director Biles Announces Many Appointments in Public Works, Source: Ledger, January 31, 1925
  5. Water Agreement Put Up to Senate, Ratification Measure Explains How This State Will Benefit Under Delaware’s Allocation, Source: Ledger, February 4


  1. Average Differences, December 1-20, 1958 [?]


  1. Men and Things, Delaware River Water Treaty Will Mean Much to Philadelphia, Source: Bulletin, February 5
  2. Broken Main Sends Water in Subway, Source: Ledger, February 13
  3. Second Main Break Causes Explosions in Chestnut St., Water Striking High Tension Wires in Conduit Makes Steam, Source: North American, February [14], 1925
  4. In The Day’s News, Source: Ledger, February 28, 1925
  5. Delaware River Water Compact, Source: Bulletin, February 28
  6. Delaware Water Pact Passed by N.Y. Senate, Source: North American, March 12


  1. New York Grab Seen by Dunlap in Water Pact, Former Bureau Chief Says Pennsylvania Was Made “Goat” by Tri-State Treaty, City’s Rights to Delaware Watershed Restricted; Swaab Called “Asleep at Switch,” Source: Inquirer, February 25
  2. Kendrick Defends Swaab on Water, Says City’s Interests Were Well Protected at Conference on Delaware Treaty, Denies Penna. Is “Goat,” Source: Ledger, February 26
  3. State Water Pact Safe, Says Mayor, Kendrick, Regretting Attacks on Swaab, Declares City is Protected in Agreement, Called ‘Grab’ by Dunlap, Source: Bulletin, February 26
  4. 60-Foot Water Tower Topples in Windstorm, Crashes Through Roof of Catasauqua Silk Plant, Source: Ledger, February 27


  1. Water Pact Change to Aid City Urged, Dunlap Advocates Steps to Insure Adequate Supply for Next Fifty Years, Endorsement of Treaty by New Jersey Advisory Engineer is Assailed, Source: Inquirer, February 28
  2. Water Plans Delay Scored as Culpable, Real Estate Board Publication Insists on Speeded Action, Source: North American, March 2
  3. Overbrook Water Supply Shut Off, School Dismissed After Main Breaks When Ground Settles, Source: North American, March 5
  4. What’s Behind This Tri-State Water Treaty? Source: Inquirer, February 22, 1925
  5. Water Pact Hits New Jersey Snag, Move to Shelve Tri-State Project for Year Seen in Request for Special Commission, Would Study State Need, Source: Bulletin, March 4
  6. Main Break Floods Broad St. Subway, Source: Bulletin, March 10


  1. Trenton to Delay Water Pact Vote, Legislative Committee Reports Against Ratification Now of Treaty With Three States, Inquiry is Proposed, Source: Bulletin, March 10
  2. Dunlap Sees N.J. Power Pact Stand Benefit to Penna., Asserts Pinchot Now Should Return Measure to Legislature, New York City Expected to Proceed With Plans Despite Defeat of Project, Source: Inquirer, March 12
  3. Main Break in West Phila. Cuts Off Water in Homes, Six-Inch Pipe Bursts Near Wynnewood Road and Media St., Source: Bulletin, March 13
  4. City Water is Poison to Plants at U. of P., Botanists Gather Rainfall to Supply Certain Sensitive Vegetable Organisms, Source: North American, March 17
  5. Drinking de Luxe at City Hall, Source: Inquirer, March 18
  6. Speaking of Water, Source: Bulletin, March 18
  7. Water Pact Veto Spurned in Jersey, Senate Repasses Resolution for Commission to Study Plan, Governor Also Disapproves Bill for Preliminary Work on Burlington Bridge, Source: Inquirer, March 20
  8. Smith Signs Water Pact, Pennsylvania Bill on Tri-State Agreement Awaits Signature, Source: Ledger, March 19
  9. Broken Water Main Deadens 700 Phones, Spruce and Locust Exchanges Suffer by Accident, Partial Repairs Made, Source: North American, March 13


  1. Part of a photo from 2004.014.0201, Source: Bulletin, April 4, 1925


  1. Photo title: The Picturesque Waterfall at Fairmount Dam, on Schuylkill, Now Being Rebuilt, Source: Bulletin, April 4, 1925
  2. Piling Under Dam Instead of Bedrock, Discovery Causes Much Extra Work on Fairmount Structure, Granite Wall Fell In, Source: North American, March 25
  3. Urges City to Develop Her Water Power, Source: Record, March 25
  4. Silzer Would Have State Control Water Supply, Governor Tells Combined Clubs of Legislature’s Dodging, Source: Record, April 7
  5. $75,000 Fire Loss at Chestnut Hill, Sawmill, 2 Buildings and Coal Pits Burn-Home and Reading Station Menaced, Lack of Water Blamed, Source: Ledger, April 13
  6. Lack of Water Hampers Firemen at Big Blaze, Newton Coal and Gucker Lumber Yards Are Damaged, Source: Record, April 14
  7. $200,000 Water Pipe Levy Fought in Northeast, Residents Protest to Biles on Added Frontage Charges, Source: Ledger, April 6
  8. Trolley Jams Auto; Driver is Held, Source: North American, April 29


  1. Senate Overrides Jersey Water Bill, Approves Measure to Appoint Commission to Study Delaware Use, Silzer Politics Scored, Source: Ledger, March 20, 1925
  2. A State’s Right to Water, Source: Bulletin, April 23
  3. Seth M. Van Loan, Source: North American, May 6
  4. Dump River Pact Into the Discard, Conferees Decline to Ratify Tri-State Treaty for Control of the Delaware’s Waters, Keep Commission Alive, Coal Mining Companies Get the Credit for Successfully Opposing Plan, Source: Record, April 16
  5. Gusher on 53rd Street, Main Breaks and Residents Are Without Water For Hours, Source: Ledger, April 19
  6. Break Cuts Water Supply, Eight-Foot Geyser Results as Wynnefield Main Gives Way, Source: Bulletin, April 30
  7. Water Main Breaks, Overbrook Section Without Water at Breakfast Time, Source: Bulletin, [May] 5
  8. Philadelphians’ Hobbies, Source: Ledger, April 15
  9. The Delaware River Treaty, Source: Bulletin, April 18
  10. Residents of Northeast Fight Water Charges, Insist the $2 a Foot Rate for Connections Is Too High, Source: Record, April 7
    Cave In at Broad and Arch, Northbound Traffic Diverted to 16th St. by Depression, Source: Bulletin, April 15
  11. New York to Tap Delaware’s Waters, Tri-State Commission Head Says City’s Needs Compel Action, Source: Inquirer, May 27
  12. Need New Water Mains, Source: Record, May 12


  1. Engineers Ask U.S. Water-Power Aid, Favor Congress Appropriation of $500,000 to Push Rivers’ Projects, Bureau Change Urged, Source: Ledger, May 9
  2. Fire Menaces Entire Block in West Phila., Davis Blames Failure of Water for $500,000 Damage at Thirtieth and Sansom Streets, Heroic Rescues Thrill Crowds as Flames, Sweeping Several Plants, Trap Firemen; Five Alarms Sounded, Source: Inquirer, June 2
  3. In the Day’s News, Source: Ledger, June 3, 1925
  4. $500,000 Fire Laid to Lack of Water, Source: Bulletin, June 2
  5. Bursting Water Main Floods South Street, Block Between Eighth and Ninth Roped Off and Trolleys Rerouted, Source: Inquirer, May 23
  6. Urge More High Pressure, West Philadelphia Councilmen Declare $500,000 Fire Emphasizes Need, Source: Bulletin, June 3


  1. Fire Inspires Call for High Pressure Mains Along River, West Philadelphia Council Members Join Chief Davis in Complaint, Inadequate Supply of Water Reported as Cause of Flames’ Extensive Sweep, Source: Inquirer, June 3
  2. Huge Loss in Fire Starts Action for Big Water Mains, Lack of Pressure Proved Congested West Philadelphia Districts Now in Danger, Fire Chief Sends Protest to Butler and Bureau, Source: Ledger, June 3
  3. Water Metering Means Saving, Source: Bulletin, May 15, 1925
  4. Useless Fire Plugs, Source: Bulletin, June 3, 1925
  5. C.E. Davis to Manage Springfield Water Co., Former Chief of Water Bureau Recalled Here From Indianapolis, Source: Record, June 3
  6. Men and Things, Householders Echo the Cry of Fire Bureau For More Water, Source: Bulletin, June 6
  7. Tavern Under Broad St., Subterranean Passage Revealed by Paving Cave-in, Source: Ledger, April 15


  1. Oak Lane Dry; Opens Fight on Water Company, Declares Springfield Corporation Gives No Service and Calls for End of Agreement, C.F. Neeld, Bureau Chief, Ready to Lead in Battle, Declares There Is No Protection Against Serious Fire, Bathing Out of Question, Source: Ledger, June 7
  2. Main Break Floods Homes, Families Aroused When Hole is Torn in Wharton St. Near 15th, Source: Bulletin, June 8
  3. Break in Water Main Floods Tulip St. Homes, Pavement Torn Up by Geysers Near Susquehanna Avenue, Source: Ledger, May 8
  4. Water Consumption Jumps, 117,000,000 Gallons Above Normal Used Daily During Hot Wave Here, Source: Ledger, June 7
  5. The Fire Menace of Water Shortage, Source: Inquirer, June 3
  6. Bigger Water Flow Promised Oak Lane, City Officials Say Present Condition Menaces health and Is a Fire Hazard, Springfield Co. Explains, Source: Ledger, June 8


  1. Oak Lane Assured of Higher Pressure, Former Chief Davis to Aid Suburb in Water Shortage Fight, Work on Auxiliary Supply Station Will Start Within Two Weeks, He Says, Source: Inquirer, June 9
  2. Davis Sees Hall on Oak Lane Water Deal, Residents of Locality Demanding Extension of City Service, Source: Record, June 13
  3. Oak Lane’s Water Problem, Source: Ledger, June [8]
  4. Philadelphia Has Taken…Source: Ledger, June 9, 1925
  5. Water Use in Hot Spell Up 117,000,000 Gallons, Chief Murdoch Explains Ban on Hydrant Shower Baths, Source: Ledger, June 6
  6. Shortage of Water, Source: Bulletin, June 11
  7. The Water “Shortage,” Source: Record, June 12
  8. Water Main Breaks, Routs 2 Families, Traffic Delayed After Hole is Torn in Street at Frankford and Erie Avs., Store Cellars Flooded, Source: Bulletin, June 5
  9. Oak Lane Water Pact is Framed, Council to Consider Agreement to Take Over Plant of Springfield Company, Source: Inquirer, June 13
  10. Lack of Pressure Hits Water Supply, Service Capable but Hampered by Too Many Open Hydrants, Source: Ledger, June 10
  11. Council Helps Oak Lane When Water Runs Short, Passes Ordinance Directing Installation of an Emergency Pump, Source: Ledger, June 19


  1. Men and Things, Suburban Water and Its Relation to Philadelphia’s Problem, Source: Bulletin, June 11, 1925
  2. Men and Things, Century-Old Water Pipes Still the “Mains” of the Inner City, Source: Bulletin, June 24
  3. Seek Shawmont Station, Source: Inquirer, November 10


  1. Men and Things, Operating Revenue From City’s Water Works Is a Handsome Net, Source: Bulletin, June 27
  2. Amber St. Water Break Submerges Trolley Line, Cars Rerouted and Cellars Flooded as Another Main Breaks, Source: Ledger, June 25
  3. Photo title: Water Main Break on Frankford Ave., caption: A large area near Womrath St. was flooded…Source: Bulletin, June 25
  4. Article attached to the above photo, Water Line Breaks on Chestnut St., Cellars of Business Houses Between Broad and 15th Flooded-Two Other Mains Burst, Frankford Ave. Flooded, Source: Bulletin, June 25
  5. Trolley Tracks Flooded on Amber St., Near Susquehanna Ave., Source: Inquirer, June 26
  6. Water “Break” Perils Trolley, Three Mains in Different Parts of City Threaten to Flood Cellars of Homes, Source: Daily News, June 23
  7. Hundreds in Northwest Deprived of Water, Break in Shawmont Pumping Station Causes Temporary Shut-Down, Source: Inquirer, June 19
  8. Plenty of Water Here, Says Expert, Bureau Engineer Declares City Supply is Best in Last Three Years, New Inspection Invited, Source: Ledger, July 7
  9. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Bulletin, June 20
  10. Water Main Breaks, Germantown Cellars Flooded and Pavement is Undermined, Source: Ledger, July 13


  1. Photo title: Modern Span Slowly Replacing 100-Year-Old Fairmount Dam, caption: Two views showing the progress being made in the construction of the new Fairmount Dam across the Schuylkill River, just above the Art Museum. The structure, which will be completed by December 1 at a cost of $600,000, will provide an uninterrupted water supply to West and North Philadelphia. The dam is being built eight feet south of the old dam, which dates back more than 100 years and which in recent years has cost the city thousands of dollars for repairs., Source: Ledger, July 24
  2. Article attached to above photo, New Schuylkill Dam to Be Ready by December 1, $600,000 Fairmount Project Will Cross River on Line Above Art Museum, 100-Year-Old Structure Was Rapidly Crumbling, Cost City Thousands of Dollars Each Year to Maintain in Repair, Source: Ledger, July 24
  3. Fire Drives Out Three Families; Water Scarce, Seven Children Saved-Alarm Box Out of Order, Firemen Reviled, Source: Ledger, July 10
  4. Other Times; Other Customs, Source: Bulletin, July 20
  5. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Bulletin, July 20


  1. Photo title: Flames Sweep Broad St. Storage House, caption: The picture shows the odds against which the fire men worked at the five-alarm blaze…,Source: Ledger, July 24
  2. $400,000 of Household Goods Damaged-Loss Falls on Owners Under Contract, Source: Ledger, July 24
  3. Section Without Water, Main Breaks at Front and Cumberland and Supply is Shut Off, Source: Ledger, June [9]
  4. Heavy Rains Swell Schuylkill River, West River Drive Inundated; Depth of Several Feet Reported, Water Over Manayunk Dam Rises to Six Feet Above Normal, Source: Ledger, July 27
  5. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Bulletin, July 31
  6. Metropolitan Water Needs, Source: Bulletin, July 25
  7. City Receives Bids For Water Improvements, Source: Record, July 1
  8. Break in Water Main Floods Uptown Homes, Block in Frankford Closed to Traffic as Stream Spouts Into Air, Source: Inquirer, July 10


  1. Photo title: Broken Broad St. Water Main Turns Geyser, caption: The break in the high pressure main occurred when a heavy section of granite curbing which subway workers were loading on a motor truck fell on the 14-inch iron pipe at Broad and Wallace Sts…, Source not known, July 7, 1925
  2. Find Water Pipes of Wood in Subway, Broad St. Tube Diggers Uncover 100-Year-Old Tree Trunks With Six-Inch Bore, Are in Fine Condition, Source: Bulletin, July 15
  3. The City’s Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, July 17
  4. Health Engineers Open Office Here, Will Have General Supervision of Water and Sewerage and Other Sanitation Work, Must Study Epidemics, District Includes This City, Bucks, Montgomery, Chester and Delaware Counties, Source: Record, August 1
  5. Haines Lewis, Source: Record, August 26, 1925
  6. Two Water Companies in Camden are Merged, Seattle Traction President Will Be Head of New Firm, Source: Record, August 2
  7. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Bulletin, September 23, 1925
  8. City Water Supply, Source: Inquirer, August 31
  9. Water Rates, Source: Ledger, October 20
  10. Main Break Causes Flood, Cellars on Germantown Ave. and Berkley St. Filled, Source: Bulletin, August 25


  1. Photo title: Schuylkill River Above Spring Garden Bridge Nears Completion, caption: …In the background on the hill may be seen the site of the new Art Museum, Source: Daily News, September 23, 192[?]
  2. Water Shortage Blamed For Fire, Priest Says Destruction of Germantown Rectory Could Have Been Avoided, Raps Laxity of City, Father Nevin, Rescued With Others, Blames Poor “Plug” and Alarm System, Source: Record, September 17
  3. Men and Things, Present Water Rates Earn Handsome Profits For the City Treasury, Source: Bulletin, October 19


  1. Trace Typhoid to Potato Salad, Infected by “Carrier” is Health Officers’ Report on Jersey Outbreak, Wholly Absolve Oysters, Investigation of Cases After Firemen’s Supper at Barnsboro Reveals Source, Source: Inquirer, November 4
  2. Water Main Bursts, Locust and 46th Street Zone is Flooded-Asphalt Pushed Up, Source: Ledger, November 3
  3. Tri-State Power Progress, Source: Bulletin, October 27, 1925
  4. Policeman on Chase Gets Lost in Subway, Rescued From Broad Street Excavation After Search for Pipe Thieves, Source: Inquirer, December 9
  5. Waterpower Doubles Under New Federal Act, Greatest Development in History of Country Reported in Last Five Years, Source: Inquirer, November 23
  6. Valley Forge Gets Big Water Main, Commission Gives Suburban Supply Company Right to Lay Pipe Through Park, Relics Better Protected, Source: Ledger, December 9
  7. City Hall Made Dry, Water Cut Off Above Third Floor by Break in Main, Source: Inquirer, November 21
  8. Lack of Water Hampers Firemen at Barn Blaze, Source: Record, December 5
  9. Country Water Blamed, Jersey Health Department Concerned Over Typhoid Fever Increase, Source: Inquirer, October 6
  10. Water-Pipe Bids Opened, Lines Costing $75,000 for Streets That Are to Be Repaved, Source: Ledger, August 12
  11. Water Main Breaks, Northeast Without Water for Several Hours Yesterday, Source: Inquirer, October 15
  12. Waterworks Thrive, Extensive Building Calls for Extensions of All Facilities, Source: Inquirer, November 11
  13. Car Reveals Leak in Main, Sinks Several Inches Into Pavement at Sixth and Market, Source: Ledger, November 16
  14. Water Mains to Be Extended, Source: Ledger, November 25


  1. Regard River Pact Not Fair to State, Experts Tell Commissioners New York Would Get More Than Fair Share of the Water, Note Some Legal Flaws, Pennsylvania Members of the Tri-State Body Agree to Try to Meet Objections, Source: Record, December 11, 1925
  2. The Delaware River Pact, Source: Bulletin, December 17
  3. Water Main Breaks, Paving Blocks Sink at 11th and Wolf Streets, Source: Bulletin, November 21
  4. Photo title: Another Water Main Break Causes Cave-in, caption: A gap twenty feet in diameter was torn in the paving on Glenwood Ave. near 6th St., when a second water pipe break occurred in this city today, Source: Bulletin, December 12
  5. Manayunk Mill Owners Seek Flood Protection, Meet State Water Commission and Ask Preventive for Schuylkill Inundation, Source: Inquirer, December 16
  6. Shore Water Pure, Iodine Content High Analysis Asked by State Shows, Source: Inquirer, October 31


  1. Big Main Break Floods Houses, Ties Up Traffic, Hundreds Marooned in Homes as Water Fills Streets Near Fairmount Reservoir, Railroad Service Badly Crippled by Inundation, Thirty-Foot Geyser From 48-Inch Pipe Digs Great Hole in Street, Streams Block River Drive, Cascades Carry Tons of Earth Down Park Slopes Onto Railroad Tracks, Source: Ledger, December 12, 1925
  2. Photo attached to above article, title: Where Flood Marooned Hundreds, caption: A principal main leading from the East Park Reservoir burst at 33rd and Oxford Streets…, Source: Ledger, December 12, 1925
  3. Second photo attached to the above article, “Big Main Break Floods Houses…” title: When Niagara Came to Snyder’s Woods, caption: Not a picture of the famous American Falls at Niagara, but a photograph of one of the errant streams that radiated from a broken water main at 33rd and Oxford Streets...Below, a photograph of the damage to the Pennsylvania Railroad tracks from another of the streams, Source: Ledger, December 12


  1. Continuation of article from 2004.014.0215, Source: Ledger, December 12
  2. Third photo attached to the article from 2004.014.0215, title: Section of City Flooded by Bursting Main, caption:…The flood covered a section equivalent to about ten city blocks…, Source: Ledger, December 12
  3. Serious Damage Avoided in Water Break, Source: Inquirer, December 14
  4. Another Great Water Power Development, Source: Inquirer, December 16
  5. Water Systems Discussed, S.M. Van Loan, of Philadelphia Department, Delivers Address, Source: Ledger, December 18
  6. Find Typhoid Carriers Evergrowing Menace, State Health Department Inquiry Shows How Malady Spreads, Source: Record, January 4, 1926
  7. Water Proposal Offered, $200,000 for Improvement Proposed by Public Works Department, Source: Ledger, December 2


  1. First photo, caption: Reading Railway Tracks under the Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge west of 33rd St., covered with water which flowed down through Fairmount Park from 33rd and Oxford Streets, where the big pipe burst, Source: Bulletin, December 12, 1925
  2. Second photo, caption: Reading Freight Cars held up by the miniature flood. The water poured down from the Pennsylvania Railroad, Source: Bulletin, December 12, 1925
  3. Third photo, caption: Roadbed Washed Out on the Pennsylvania line between the Reading Railway tracks and 33rd St., Source: December 12, 1925


  1. Homes Waterless When Main Bursts, Flood Menaces Mansions of Wealthy at Chestnut Hill and Mount Airy, Institutions are Affected, Source: Ledger, December 19
  2. Water Line Breaks in Chestnut Hill, Supply of Part of Germantown Also Cut Off by Flood at Hartwell Lane, [?] Burst in Year, Source: Bulletin, December 19
  3. Despite this break, another one on…,Source: Ledger, December 18
  4. Delaware is Seen as Tri-State Bond, Penna., New Jersey and New York Linked by River, Jersey Society Hears, Camden Bridge and Giant Power Vital Interests, Woodruff Declares, Source: Inquirer, December 19
  5. More Pay Sought by City Engineers, New Organization Adopts Schedule of Increases Ranging From 30 to 60 Per Cent, Top Figure to be $20,000, Resolutions Say Poor Financial Return Bars Many Young Men From Profession, Source: N.Y. Times, December 22
  6. New Jersey Loses Water-Power Plea, Bill to Hold Act Illegal is Dismissed by Supreme Court, Ford Wins His Fight, Held Land Prices Were Too High-Oklahoma Wage Law Invalid, Source: [?] January 5
  7. Lake Forms in Street, Broken Main Causes 30-Foot Pond at Seventh and Locust, Source: Inquirer, January 1, 1924



  1. Water Main Break Causes Big Damage, Cellars Near Broad and Girard Ave. are Flooded, Motors Marooned and Street Torn Up, Hotel’s Lights Put Out, Source: Bulletin, December 11, 1925
  2. $91,500,000 Water Plan May be Revived Soon, Efforts to Put Costly Scheme Over Are Expected to Be Renewed, Source: Record, January 6, 1926
  3. City Soon to Have 100,000,000 Gals. More Water Daily, Belmont and Torresdale Plants to Provide Increased Flow, Additions to Be Made That Will Fit Into Future Upland Systems, Source: Inquirer, January 6
  4. City Water Supply to Be Increased, Meter System Favored, Source: Ledger, January 6,1926
  5. New York Rejects Giant Power Plan, Governor Smith’s Representatives Vote Down Tri-State Regulation of Current, State Ready to Co-operate, However, and Proposes Two Alternative Projects, Source: Inquirer, December 24, 1925
  6. City Has Own Little Trains For Pumping Stations Use, Source: Bulletin, January 13


  1. Supporting the Power Board, Source: Bulletin, no date given
  2. Tackling the Water Problem, Source: Bulletin, January 22
  3. Explains Taste in Water, Comes From ‘Trade Waste’ But is Harmless, Says Expert, Source: Bulletin, December 22
  4. A Gap in City Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, [January] 22
  5. Oak Lane Park Citizens Complain of Water, Say They Are Getting City Product at Springfield Prices, Source: Record, January 14
  6. 3-Mile Reservoir Planned, Suburban Water Company Starts $7,000,000 Project in Delaware Co., Source: Ledger, [December] 31
  7. Protest High Price For Water Supply, Oak Lane Park Complains It Pays Springfield Co. Rate for Liquid from City Reservoir, Detect it By Bad Taste, Source: Bulletin, January 13
  8. Committee Holds Fate of Tri-State Water Pact, Opponents at Hearing Say New York City Would Get an Undue Share, Source: Ledger, February 3
  9. City Water Sold by Springfield Co., It Has Supplied 22,000,000 Gallons in Oak Lane Section at Price Above Municipal Rate, Patrons Demand Refund, Source: Bulletin, January 21
  10. Water Shortage Affects Thousands of Families, Broken Valve in Roxborough Leaves Many Homes ‘Dry’, Source: Bulletin, January 30
  11. Break in Water Main Causes Alarm Downtown, Flood Quickly Shut Off Before Cellars Are Inundated, Source: Ledger, January 20


  1. Revision of Water Compact is Urged, New Jersey Board Advises Legislature Not to Ratify Tri-State Project, For More Negotiations, Definite Provision With Respect to Power of Taxation Recommended, Source: Record, February 3
  2. Water Shortage Alarms Roxborough Residents, Bureau Hunts in Vain for Cause of Low Pressure; May Be Ice Jam, Source: Ledger, January 30
  3. Big Section Lacks Water, Chestnut Hill and Roxborough Cut Off by Pumping Station Mishap, Source: Ledger, January 18
  4. Repairs to Mains End Water Famine, Leaks Caused Shortage in Chestnut Hill, Germantown and Other Districts, Contractor Breaks Pipe, Source: Ledger, January 30
  5. Bill Proposes to Change Delaware River Compact, Would Safeguard Distribution of the River’s Waters, Source: Record, January 27
  6. The Delaware River Compact, Source: Bulletin, [February] [?]
  7. Pure Water Wanted, Source: Bulletin, February 3
  8. New York’s Water Power, Source: Bulletin, February 3
  9. 2 More City Engineers Quit Because of Low Pay, Department Heads Blame Budget-Paring for Loss of Good Men, Source: Ledger, February 4
  10. Water Survey Asked, Chamber of Commerce Wants Tri-State Compact Studied, Source: Inquirer, January 20
  11. Vote $8000 for Water, Source: Inquirer, November 2


  1. Storm and Strike, Fire Hazard is Increased as Water Pressure Falls Off, City Pumping Station Boilers Fail to Function With Substitute Fuels-Homes, Hospitals and Factories Handicapped. Ambulances Busy With Cold Victims, Source: Daily News, February 4
  2. Water Supply Weakened, Officials Blame Soft Coal for Temporary Lack of Steam, Source not known, February 4, 1926
  3. Ask Better Water Supply, Chestnut Hill Citizens Pass Resolution at Mass-Meeting, Source: Ledger, February 5
  4. Water Pressure Better, Will Return to Normal by Monday, Bureau Chief Says, Source: [North American] [February]
  5. Water Shortage Laid to Poor Coal, Many Sections of City Hit When Low Pressure Leaves Homes Almost Dry, Relief Promised Today, Source: Ledger, February 4
  6. Women in Water Fight, Call for Better Supply in and Near East Germantown, Source: Ledger, no date given
  7. Inferior Coal Causes Water Pressure Drop, Central Section Bared to Menace of Serious Fires and Residents Are Inconvenienced, Relief Promised Today; Ten Carloads of Better Grade Fuel Rushed to Pumping Stations, Source: Inquirer, February 5
  8. Plan to Electrify Pumping Stations, City Water Works Crippled by Using Bad Coal, Due to Strike, Cost Not Very Great, Declare Saving Would Soon Overcome Initial Outlay; To Buy Power, Source: Record, February 6, 1926
  9. Norristown Creosote is Blamed for Water Taste, Source: Record, December 2[1]


  1. Oak Lane Hard Hit by Water ‘Famine’, Withdrawal of Reserve Supply by City in Present Shortage is Blamed, Electrification is Urged, Source: Ledger, February 8
  2. Saving the Delaware, Source: Bulletin, February 10
  3. Oak Lane Will Get Own Water Plant, Source: Ledger, February 7
  4. A Threat Against the City Water Supply, Source: Inquirer, February [?]
  5. Water and Coal, Source: Ledger, February 6
  6. Water-Power Policy Rather Than Steam, Purpose of Toronto Commission, New Chairman Tells Engineers, Source: Ledger, November 20


  1. Propose to Purify Delaware Water, State Wants City to Push Plans to Relieve River of Sewage Pollution, Cost Will Be Very High, Ambitious Program Outlined. Price Fixed for Suburban Water Company, Source: Record, February 9
  2. Photo title: To Spend Millions, caption: Director Biles, Who announced huge scheme to improve sewage disposal and water supply in Northeast Philadelphia, Source: Ledger, February 9, 1926
  3. Article attached to above photo, $6,000,000 Sewage Plan Announced, Water Plant With 300,000,000 Gallon Daily Capacity, Included in Improvement Project, Biles Urges Speedy Work, Source: Ledger, February 9, 1926
  4. Coal Shipments Return to Normal, Rail Officials Say, Tonnage Same as That Which Prevailed Year Ago at This Time, 3 Trains of 80 Cars Each Bring 12,000 Tons Here, Prices Remain at Winter Levels, Despite Rise Within Last Few Days, Source: Ledger, February 23, 1926
  5. Polluted Waters Destroying Fish, Source: Inquirer, February 5, 1926


  1. Dividing the Delaware, Source: Bulletin, February 20
  2. Two Early Moves For Better Water, Four-Mile Tunnel Sewer and Electrification at Torresdale Planned, Acquisition by City of Oak Lane Supply System Is Recommended, Source: Inquirer, February 9
  3. Roper Says City Neglects Water Supply System, Councilman Charges Incompetence in Hot Attack on Administration, Officials Blame Strike, Declare Inability to Get Anthracite Has Caused Low Water in All Sections, Plant Long Ignored, Biles Says He is Rushing Improvements Which Were Needed Long Ago, Source: Record, February 19
  4. Takes Up Water Problem, Record, February 12
  5. Pumping Stations to Be Electrified, Engineers See Way to Prevent Water Shortage Because of Inferior Coal, Expense Not Excessive, Source: Ledger, February 6
  6. Better City Water, $5,000,000 Sewers Expected to Better Conditions Here, Source: Daily News, February 25


  1. Manayunk Mills Closed by Floods, Phila. Electric Power Plant Forced to Shut by Rising of Schuylkill, Peak Reached by Waters, Source: Ledger, February 26
  2. Manayunk Mill Closed by Flooded Schuylkill, 6 Ft. 2 Ins. Over Flat Rock Dam-Now Falling-Think Danger Past, Source: Bulletin, February 26
  3. Photo attached to article, “Manayunk Mills Closed by Floods…” title: A Turbulent Schuylkill Floods Its Banks, caption: The upper photo shows the river…tumbling furiously over Flat Rock Dam. In the lower picture, John J. Bush and his daughter, Edith, are negotiation a flood stretch of road on the west Schuylkill bank opposite two Manayunk mills…, Source: Ledger, February 26
  4. Plans for Purification of Delaware Under Way, Proposed Sewer Will Free River North of Lehigh Avenue From Pollution, Source: Record, February 2[5]
  5. Pump Station Bids Opened, Electrification of Torresdale Plant Will Increase Efficiency 50 P.C., Source not known, February 24
  6. To Cleanse the Delaware, Source: Ledger, February 10
  7. Pumping Stations Will Get Coal, Reading Will Deliver 500 Tons of Anthracite Daily Beginning Next Week, Water Chief is Elated, Scant Supply During Last Four Weeks Was Due to Operating With Substitutes, Source: Record, February 20


  1. Suburbs Still in Clutch of Water Famine, Workmen Fail to Rid Pumps of Debris From Flood-Hospital Operation Halted, Surgeons Handicapped; Patients in Jeopardy, Biles and Murdock Promise Better Equipment and Normal Supply Soon, ‘Kiddie Kars’ and Carts Become Water Wagons, Source: Ledger, February 28
  2. Approve Purchase of Water Company, Council Public Works Committee Favors Acquisition of Plant in Oak Lane, Cost Set at $358,525.60, Source: Bulletin, February 25
  3. Bid For Water Apparatus, $94,197 is Low Offer For Electrical Receiving Equipment, Source not known, March 3


  1. The Immediate Water Problem, Source not known
  2. Section of City is Without Water, Intakes at Shawmont Station Clogged by River Refuse, Germantown Goes Dry, Conditions Have Been Bad for Months, Due to Coal Strike, Source: Record, February 27
  3. Hibernating Water Snake, Source: Record, March 1
  4. City to Pay Bills for Water Used, Council Finance Committee Approves Contracts With Springfield and Bristol Companies, 1926 Budget Amended, Source: Ledger, February 25
  5. Thousands Go Dry by Pumping Station Boiler Breakdown, Chestnut Hill, Roxborough, Mt. Airy and Germantown Suffer, Normal Supply Promised Today; Obsolete Equipment at Shawmont Blamed, Source: Inquirer, February 27


  1. Something is Wrong With the Water Bureau, It Is Up to the Mayor to Find Out Whether It Is Lack of Money or Lack of Efficiency, Source: Ledger, no date given
  2. Merely Palliating Filtered Sewage, Source: Inquirer, February 16, 1926
  3. Abandon the Schuylkill River Water Supply, Source: Inquirer, March 2, 1926
  4. Criticism of the Water Situation, Source: Inquirer, March 3, 1926
  5. Water Conservation in Southern New Jersey, Source: Inquirer, March 4


  1. Blame Water Famine on Incompetence of Kendrick Appointees, Experts Say Murdock Is Not Equipped for Post, System is Neglected, Money Spent on Gaudy Stuff, While Upkeep of Water Works is Ignored, District Gets Relief, After 48 Hours of Dryness Germantown Spigots Run Once More, Source: Record, March 12
  2. City Now Helpless to Prevent Water Famine, Chief Says, New Shortage Possible Until Shawmont Station Is Electrified, Murdoch Adds, Work, Costing $140,000, To Be Ready in 40 Days, Situation Might Have Been Avoided if Job Had Been Done Earlier, He Admits, Source: Ledger, March 1


  1. Continuation of article from 2004.014.0230, Source: Ledger, March 1
  2. Discuss Water Situation at Roxborough Meeting, Governor Called Upon to Stop Pollution of Schuylkill, Source: Record, March 4
  3. West Philadelphia Faces Water Peril, Source of Schuylkill’s “Carbolic Cocktails” Is Uncovered, State and City Officials to Decide Action to End Deadly Pollution, Source: Inquirer, March 12
  4. A Grave Water Problem, Source: Ledger, March 12


  1. Flowing Water Gives Relief in Chestnut Hill, Supply Again Normal in 80 Per Cent. Of Affected Area After Four-Day Drought, Spigots Trickle Feebly at First, But Better Pressure at Nightfall Ends Long Period of Hardship, Source: Inquirer, March 12
  2. “Economizing” Now Blamed in Water Failure, Murdoch Says Adequate Supply in Northwest Depends on Shawmont Improvements, Bureau Chief Outlines Many Extensions and Renovations Planned After Interview With Mayor, Source: Inquirer, March 2


  1. The Blame in the Water Matter, Source: Bulletin, March 8, 1926
  2. Murdoch Answers Queries on Water Fiasco With Oaths, “I Don’t Give a Damn,” His Oft-Repeated Reply to Requests for Information, Explains to Kendrick, Blames Coal Strike and High Water for Failure of Water Supply Service, Figures are Questioned, Water Chief Jacked Up on His Reference to Improvements Made or Contemplated, Source: Inquirer, March 2, 1926
  3. Women Protest Water Conditions, Phila. Republican Branch Demands Action Be Taken to Remedy Situation, Source: Ledger, March 1


  1. Mayor Begins Water Probe; Hires Expert, [E]ngages J.W. Ledoux, Noted Engineer, to Make a “Thorough Investigation,” Survey to Cover Cause and Cure of Shortage, Inquiry to Start at Once, With Report Expected On or Before Tuesday, State Also Takes a Hand, City Has Failed to Protect Citizens, Pinchot Says as He Sends Officials Here, Source: Ledger, March 3, 1926
  2. Dunlap Charges Gross Negligence Caused Drought, Either That, Stupidity or ‘Deliberate Attempt to Cripple Pumping Station,’ Says Former Bureau Chief-Disputes Murdoch’s Explanation, Crossan and Daly Demand More Pressure in Northeast, Source: Bulletin, March 2


  1. Water Reserves Near Danger Point Murdoch Admits, Amount Pumped SO Low That Break in Plant Would Cause Drought in District, Crossan and Daly Ask ‘Showdown’ in Situation, Improvements Now Under Way Will Avert Danger of Shortage, Biles Says, Source: Ledger, March 2
  2. Roper’s Engineer Gets Data for Water Probe, Source: Ledger, March 3


  1. Murdoch Strives to Hold Job and Meet New Crisis, Charges of Negligence May Force Out Head of Water Bureau; Davis Reticent After Seeing Mayor, Kendrick and Biles in ‘Hands Off’ Attitude; Chestnut Hill Again Undergoes Brief Dry Spell, Source: Inquirer, March [?]
  2. Water-Famine Victims to Debate Relief Plans, Source: Ledger, March 3


  1. Mayor and Biles to Make Murdoch Fight Own Battle, Water Chief, Now Under Fire, Got Glory Aplenty for His “Economy.” Cut Payroll $200,000, Department of Supplies in Position to Prove Soft Coal Not Cause of Breakdown, Dunlap Raps Management, Blames Failure of Water System on Negligence, Incompetence and Gross Stupidity, Source: Record, March 3
  2. City Faces Boost in Insurance Rates, Increase May Follow Added Fire Hazard in Inadequate Water System, Municipal Officials Get Findings of National Board of Underwriters’ Survey, Source: Inquirer, March 2


  1. Says Worry Killed Water Plant Chief, ‘Overwork and Hounding’ Caused Torresdale Engineer’s Death, Widow Declares, Backs Dunlap Charges, Source: Bulletin, March 3
  2. Men and Things, Shawmont Breakdown the Result of Taking a Chance, Source: Bulletin, March 2
  3. Water Waste, Source: Record, March 2


  1. Water Bureau Inefficiency, Source: Record, March 3
  2. On “Taking Chances,” Source: Ledger, March 3
  3. Excuses That Are Admissions of Guilt, We Shall Soon Know Where the Mayor Places Responsibility for the Water Famine, Source: Ledger, March 4
  4. Improvement Societies Demand Water Supply, Germantown and Chestnut Hill Organizations Aroused Over Crisis, Source: Ledger, March 5
  5. Pinchot Awaits Report of Water Engineers, Source: Ledger, March 5


  1. To Survey City Water, (photo of John Walter Ledoux included) Mayor Employs Expert to Find Water Trouble, Naming of J.W. Ledoux by Kendrick Believed to Presage Ousting of Murdoch, Davis, Ex-Bureau Chief, Offered Post, Declines, Pinchot Intervenes and Orders Two State Engineers Here to Trace “Breakdown,” Source: Ledger, March 4
  2. ‘Will Not Resign’, Murdock Says as Water Probe Nears, Mayor Conducting Personal Investigation, His Friends Say, Source: Bulletin, March 3


  1. Mayor Appoints Expert to Probe Water Conditions, Kendrick Issues Order for Sweeping Survey as Pinchot Announces State Health Department Inquiry, John W. Ledoux Will Examine Situation; Murdoch Reiterates He Will Not Resign His Post, Source: Inquirer, March 4
  2. Roper Demands Murdoch Resign as Water Chief, Source: Bulletin, March 4


  1. Under Investigation, (photo of Alexander Murdoch) Oust Murdoch, Roper Demands, But Gets No Aid, Combine Refuses to Back Up His Charge of Criminal Negligence in Water Crisis, Situation Grave, Says Ledoux, Mayor’s Expert, More Germantown Residents Appeal for Relief; Belmont Station Declared Undermanned, Source: Ledger, March 5


  1. Continuation of article from 2004.014.0242, Source: Ledger, March 5
  2. State Expert Lays Drought to Lack of Maintenance, Inadequate Supply of Coal Before Strike Also Blamed by Stevenson in Report, ‘Fundamental Weakness’ of System Shown, He Says, Findings Prove ‘Gang, as Usual, Has Neglected Everything But Politics,’ Pinchot Comments, Source: Ledger, March 8, 1926
  3. Murdoch Too Obliging, Places Given to Men Who Did No Work, While Efficient Men Were Let Out, Source: Record, March 8


  1. Murdoch Hints Water Forces “Framed” Him, Carleton Davis Reported Slated for $10,000 Job in Event Bureau Chief Resigns, Ledoux Convinced of Cause of Recent Shortage After Second Day of Special Investigation, Source: Inquirer, March 9, 1926
  2. Phila.’s Water Safe, State Analysis Shows, Source: Ledger, March 6
  3. Davis Refuses to Be Water Chief; Murdoch Due to Go, Former Bureau Head Wouldn’t Take Post “Under Any Circumstances,” Mayor Says, Dodges Saying Whether He Offered Him Place, Understanding Kendrick Would Swing Ax Given as Reason for Roper’s Defeat, Source: Ledger, March 6
  4. Murdoch’s Men Brand Mutiny Charges False, Leader Says They Worked Especially Hard of Late to Get More Pay, Bureau Chief Held Them to Blame for Breakdown, Ledoux Expects to Put His Report in Mayor’s Hands Tomorrow, Source: Ledger, March 8


  1. Council Dodges Roper’s Demands to Fire Murdoch, Chamber Holds Stormy Session and Defers Action to Await Result of Mayor’s Special Inquiry, Water Chief Declared Madman and Menace to City; Blamed for Present Shortage and Poor Plants, Source: Inquirer, March 5
  2. Murdoch Charges Aides ‘Framed’ Him, Admits Shawmont Has Been Neglected, but Lays Blame on Subordinates, Ledoux Report Finished, Source: Ledger, March 6
  3. Furnish the Water Facts, Source: Bulletin, March 4, 1926


  1. Water Officials Facing Shake-Up, Observers Predict Mayor Will Act When He Gets Ledoux Report, Expert Rushes Probe, Source: Bulletin, March [5]
  2. Ledoux Questions Murdoch in Probe, Expert’s Visit Follows Tour of Inspection of Plants and Reservoirs, Sees Deputy Chief Also, Source: Ledger, March 5


  1. Ledoux’s Opinion ‘Rough on Someone,’ But ‘Will be Cautious About Blaming Individual’-Modern System Would Require Years, Confers With Murdoch, Source: Bulletin, March 5
  2. Water-Plant Test Begun by Ledoux, Expert Visits Shawmont and Roxborough and Examines Equipment, Silent on What He Found, Source: Ledger, March 5
  3. Blame Coal Strike for Water Famine, State Investigators Say ‘Lack of Proper Maintenances’ Was Contributing Factor, Make Report to Pinchot, Source: Bulletin, March 8
  4. Ledoux is Busy as Mayor Leaves, To Decide Murdoch Fate, Source: Ledger, March 9


  1. Official Action in Water Crisis Now Imminent, Report of Ledoux Will Determine Mayor’s Course in Solution of Present Conditions, Supply Declared Adequate, With Basins Slightly Low; Hall Expected to Aid Murdoch’s Status, Source: Inquirer, March 8
  2. Belief Increases Murdoch Must Go, Mayor Promises Thorough Study and Prompt Action on Water Expert’s Report, Urge Lukens as Successor, Source: Ledger, March 9, 1926
  3. Go to the Bottom of the Water Situation, Source: Inquirer, March 5
  4. Expert Calls City Water Policy Lax, State Health Department’s Engineer Says Plant Is Not Properly Kept Up, Needs Extensive Repairs, Report of John W. Ledoux Will Be Submitted to Mayor Kendrick Today, Source: Record, March 9


  1. State Expert Lays Drought To Lack of Maintenance, Source: Ledger, March 9
  2. Mayor Sees Aids on Water Report, Confers With Gaffney, Biles, and Swaab Regarding City Expert’s Findings, Hasn’t Seen Murdoch, Source: Bulletin, March 10
  3. Murdoch Defended by Hall on Water System Breakdown, Opportunity to Answer Critics Is Demanded for Bureau Head, President of Council Declares Square Dealing Will Be Shown, Source: Inquirer, March 9, 1926
  4. Logan Has Water Crisis As Mayor Makes Report, Source: Inquirer, March 12


  1. Ledoux Water Report Holds Murdoch Fate, Council Support Rallies to Chief as Opposition Charges Deliberate Crippling of System, Councilman Tells Germantown Clubmen Bureau Needs More Employees With Better Pay for Men, Source: Inquirer, March 10, 1926
  2. Water Report Said to Attack Policy, Ledoux Completes Findings; Believed He Attributes Shawmont Break to Officials’ Negligence, Public Meeting Possible, Source: Ledger, March 10
  3. Ledoux Completes His Water Report, Mayor May Transmit Findings, With Recommendations, to City Council, Looking for New Chief, Thompson, Superintendent of Pumping Stations, on Sliding Board, Source: Record, March 10
  4. Mayor Receives Report of Ledoux on Water Shortage, Silence Adds to Rumor Council Will Determine Further Action, Murdoch Is Expected to Be Retained as Chief of Water Bureau, Source: Inquirer, March 11


  1. Report on Water Comes Out Today, Ledoux’s Findings and Mayor’s Recommendations to Be Presented to Council, Contents Still a Mystery, Source: Ledger, March 11
  2. Men and Things, What Should it Cost to Run the Water Bureau? Source: Bulletin, March 6
  3. “Quit? Not by Darn Sight”-Murdoch, Water Bureau Chief Pleased After Discussing Ledoux’s Neglect Allegations With Biles, Davis Sees Kendrick, Source: Bulletin, March 12
  4. Spigot vs. Bunghole, Source: Bulletin, March 18, 1926


  1. Ledoux Charges Official Laxity in Water Crisis, Claims Absolute Neglect of Equipment and Operation at Shawmont and Torresdale Plants Which Executives Knew Was Inadequate and Did Not Take Measure to Remedy, Mayor Ignores Issue and Fails to Discharge Murdoch as He Promises Prolonged “Investigation” and Discipline of Those Causing Existing Conditions at City Pumping Stations, Source: Inquirer, March 12
  2. Firing Water Aides Opposed by Davis, Former Chief Advises Mayor to Get Better Service Instead of “Vengeance,” All Helping, Says Kendrick, Source: Ledger, March 12
  3. Bursting of Water Main Arouses Scores Uptown, 12-Inch Pipe Breaks With a Roar, but Repairs Are Quickly Made, Source not know, March 18


  1. Mayor Blames Faulty System in Water Crisis, Source: Ledger, March 11
  2. Citizens Demand New Water Plan, Germantown and Chestnut Hill Residents Make Appeal to Mayor and Council, Fire Danger is Cited, Source not known
  3. Put the Water System in Order, Source: Inquirer, March 10, 1926
  4. Ledoux’s Water Report Tells the Story, Source: Inquirer, March 13


  1. Text of Ledoux’s Report to Mayor on Water Crisis, Source: Ledger, March 12


  1. Expert Reports Water Crisis is Due to Neglect, Ledoux Blames Inadequate Equipment in Plants and Inefficiency of Employees, Mayor Promises Prompt Improvement of System, Neither Investigator Nor Kendrick Mentions Murdoch-Hall Doubts Ousting of Chief, Poor Coal Made Trouble, Investigator Says That Could Have Been Avoided at First Hint of Strike, Source: Ledger, March 12
  2. Murdoch Meets Mayor, Then Says He Retains Post, Carlton E. Davis Advises Kendrick Not to Discharge Any One in Bureau, Get Water, Not Vengeance, Former Chief Urges, Source: Inquirer, March 13
  3. Councilman Smith Defends Murdoch, Tells Lions’ Club Water Bureau Chief is “More Sinned Against Than Sinning,” Ledoux Reports Today, Source: Bulletin, March 9, 1926


  1. Murdoch Says He Won’t Quit as Water Chief, Confers With Biles on Ledoux’s Report and Announces His Plan to Remain, Councilmen Meet Tuesday for Further Discussion of Case and Affected Citizens Will Also Gather, Source: Inquirer, March 13
  2. Ledoux Report Saves Murdoch, Water Chief to Keep Job, as He Was Not Alone to Blame for Famine, Councilmen Are Wary, Afraid to Approve Expert’s Indictment of Kendrick Inefficiency, Source: Record, March 13
  3. Two Engineers at City Pumping Stations Fired, Chiefs at Torresdale and Shawmont Charged With Inefficiency by Director Biles, Move to Fix Culpability for Water Shortage, Bureau Heads Take Charge of Plants-Crossan Criticizes Dismissals, Source: Ledger, March 14
  4. Dunlap Flays Mayor’s Firing of Water Aides, “Rank Injustice,” Says Former Bureau Head, Who Declares Men Were “Sacrificed,” Kerr and McGowan Did Not Have Charge of Repairs at Torresdale and Shawmont Stations, He Adds, Source: Inquirer, March 15


  1. Continuation of article from 2004.014.0256, “Dunlap Flays Mayor’s Firing of Water Aides,…” Source: Inquirer, March 15
  2. Roper to Continue Fight on Murdoch, Will Carry War to Public if Council Fails to Act, He Says, Davis Defends Employees, Source: Ledger, March 13
  3. Committee Dodges on Water Supply, Councilmen Crossan and Roper Declare They Will Demand Inquiry Into Dismissals, Report Not Printed Yet, Source: Bulletin, March 16
  4. Facing the Water Facts, Source: Bulletin, March 16
  5. Men and Things, Neither Excuse Nor Explanation for the Existing Water Crisis, Source: Bulletin, March 13


  1. It Was Negligence That Caused Water Famine, Now We Shall See What the Mayor Will Do to Prevent It From Happening Again, Source: Ledger, March 13
  2. A Duty Half Performed, Source: Record, March 6
  3. Water Bureau Shake-Up, Source: Ledger, March 15
  4. The Water Supply Collapse, Source: Record, March 13
  5. A Diversion That Doesn’t Divert, Source: Bulletin, March 15
  6. ‘Fill Bathtub’ Is Latest! Water Crisis to Blame, Source: Ledger, March 16


  1. Water Men Ouster Defended By Biles, Bureau Chief Says Aides Were Discharged Because of Incompetency, Mayor Indorses Action, Source: Ledger, March 15
  2. Water Dismissals Rouse Councilmen, Crossan and Daly See Kendrick and Biles in Hunt for “satisfaction,” Dunlap Assails Firing, Source: Bulletin, March 15
  3. Water Repair Bids Opened by Biles, Contracts for Motor-Driven Pumps at Two Stations to Be Awarded, Money to Come From Loan, Source: Ledger, March 16
  4. In The Day’s News, Source: Ledger, March 16, 1926
  5. Reports Persist That Murdoch Will Be Fired, Stories That He Will Be Eased Out Floating About Hall, Source: Record, March 18, 1926


  1. May Blow Lid Off The Water Mess, Ledoux Report, Scoring Administration, to Be Considered by Councilmen Today, Stirring Up The Mayor, Demand Light on Firing of Engineers-Biles Explains the Discharges, Source: Record, March 16
  2. Men and Things, Checkered History of the Shawmont-Roxborough Water System, Source: Bulletin, March 15
  3. New Water Famine is Barely Averted, Valve on Boiler at Shawmont Station Bursts But Emergency Repairs Prevent Drought, Ledoux Inspects Plant, Source: Bulletin, March 17


  1. Fight on Murdoch Will Go to Council, Roper and Crossan Say They Will Demand Dismissal of Water Bureau Chief, Bids for Pumps Opened, Source: Ledger, March 17
  2. To Demand Action on Ledoux Report, Crossan and Roper Will Call Up Survey at Tomorrow’s Meeting of Council, Still Seek Murdoch Scalp, Source: Bulletin, March 17
    New Water Famine Feared by Ledoux, Expert Says Northwest Will Suffer if One Big Shawmont Pump Breaks Down, Murdoch Takes Rosy View, Source: Ledger, March 20
  3. Murdoch Ready to Retire From Water Bureau, Rumor Pervades City Hall, But Lacks Confirmation, Shawmont Pumpman’s Dismissal Stirs Three Councilmen; Kerr to Have Hearing, Source: Inquirer, March 18
  4. Murdoch Denies He Will Resign, “I Am Being Hounded,” Declares Water Chief in Announcing He Will Keep Job, Still in Charge, He Says, Source: Ledger, March 18
  5. Water-Tower Takes Fire, Firemen Have Hard Time Getting Hose Lines Up, Source: Ledger, March 18


  1. Councilmen Throw Blame on Murdoch, Mayor and Biles Are Disposed to Consider Dismissals of Employees as Final, Crossan and Daly Rally to Support of Engineers Who Were Fired, Source: Inquirer, March 16
  2. Inquiry by Council in Water Chiefs’ Ousting is Hinted, Rumors That Politics Prompted Dismissal of Pumping Station Engineers Denied by Mayor, Men Found Incompetent, Director Biles Insists, Source: Ledger, March 19
  3. Lack of Water Hampers Darby Township Firemen, Eight Persons Escape With Difficulty as Two Homes Burn, Source: Ledger, March 18
  4. Council Sidesteps Pro[ve]s o[?] Water, Puts Responsibilities of Maintenance of System Up to Kendrick and Biles, Culpability of Officials in Recent Breakdown is Also Dodged, Source: Inquirer, March 9


  1. Council Refuses Action on Water, Decides It has No Right to Interfere at Shawmont and Accepts Biles’ Plans, Murdoch Sticks to Job, Source: Ledger, March 19
  2. City Water Project Abandoned by Hall, Council President Declares Administration Will Not Provide New Supply, Electoral Loan Bill Total Boosted to $54,750,000 by Finance Committee, Source: Inquirer, March 25
  3. Full Rehabilitation for the Water Plant, Source: Inquirer, March 22
  4. Coal Mines Sealed to Check Pollution, Source: Inquirer, March 19
  5. Twenty-five Years Ago Today (March 16, 1901), Source not known
  6. The Coal Situation, Source: Record, February 6, 1926
  7. Northeast ‘Goes Dry,’ Fox Chase and Other Sections Have Temporary Water Shortage, Source: Bulletin, March 30


  1. Foes Again Seek to Oust Murdoch, Follow Up Ledoux’s Statement That Negligence Caused Break in Water System, Davis Refuses to Return, Source: Ledger, March 7
  2. Future Water Supply, Source: Ledger, March 28
  3. Who Was the Jackass? Source: Record, March 26
  4. $5,000,000 Project to Rid City Water of Pollution Begun, Biles Receives Bids for Sewage Disposal System at Torresdale, Work on New Pumping Plant for Delaware River to Start at Once, Source: Inquirer, April 1
  5. The Lid for Water Failure, Source: Bulletin, March 19
  6. New Water Mains For N.E. Section, More Adequate Service to Bustleton and Vicinity Expected Shortly, Bid Received for Laying 21,300 Feet of Piping From Torresdale Plant, Source: Inquirer, March 31


  1. Back in City’s Pay Day After Ousting, Councilmanic Friends Worked Fast for Kerr, Chief Engineer at Torresdale, Blamed for Water Crisis, Source: Ledger, April 15
  2. Chestnut St. ‘Fountain’ Caused by Leaky Main, Workmen Finally Stop Bubbling Between Trolley Tracks, Source: Ledger, April 2
  3. Northeast Sewage Disposal, Source: Bulletin, April 2
  4. City Will Boost Water Supply by 25 Per Cent, Improvements Completed This Summer to Make Daily Capacity 525,000,000 Gallons, Consumption During 1925 Was 360,000,000 Gallons, Controller Hanley Reports Gross Receipts of $6,000,000 for the Year, Source: Ledger, April 18
  5. Water Bureau Revenue, Source: Bulletin, April 19, 1926
  6. Water Repairs Near Completion, Modernization of Pumping Stations That Caused Famine Well Under Way, New Plants Nearly Ready, Source: Ledger, April 14
  7. A Schuylkill Clean Up, Source: Bulletin, April 16
  8. Bids Being Scheduled For Pumping System, New 300,000,000 Gallon Plant to Be Erected at Cost of $700,000, Source: Daily News, April 1
  9. Geyser Spouts in Street, Roar of Breaking Main Rouses Neighborhood at 18th and Flora, Source: Bulletin, April 17


  1. W. Phila. Will Get Water Increase, Present Supply of 50,000,000 Gallons Will Be Doubled Under Bureau Plan, Bids Will Be Asked for Extensions to Belmont Filter; Probable Cost $500,000, Source: Inquirer, April 24
  2. Men and Things, Schuylkill River Conditions Challenge Public Interest, Source: Bulletin, April 30
  3. Kerr, Shawmont’s Ousted Engineer, Heads Eligibles, Discharged Because of Water Famine, He Gets Into Line for Old Post, Biles Has Right to Name Second High Name on List, Source: Ledger, May 1
  4. Truck Sinks Into Street, Source: Ledger, May 1


  1. Fern Rock Hits Water Shortage, Without Supply from Yesterday Until Noon Today, Householders Complain, Murdoch Denies Lack, Source: Bulletin, May 3
  2. Fern Rock Suffers Shortage in Water, Source: Ledger, May 4
  3. Water Break Tears Street, Kensington Householders Awakened by Police When Main Gives Way, Source not known
  4. Men and Things, Factory Wastes Pour Into Supply of City’s Drinking Water, Source: Bulletin, May 6
  5. Valve is New Goat in Water Shortage, Bone-Dry Situation on Wash Day in Fern Rock Laid to Improper Regulation, People Complain That It is Due to Robbing Peter to Pay Paul in Fox Chase, Source: Record, May 4
  6. Shawmont Now Using Electrical Equipment, Change Necessitated Shutdown of Booster Pump for Two Hours, Source: Record, May 6


  1. City Water Supply Will Be Improved, Construction Program to Double Distribution Capacity in West Philadelphia, New Filter Plant at Belmont Station and More Pumps Listed in Specifications, Source: Inquirer, May 22
  2. Water for Oak Lane, Service Body Approves Plan for City to Buy Suburban Company, Source: Ledger, June 5
  3. Geyser in Street Floods 3 Blocks, Cellars of Homes Inundated in Vicinity of 12th Street and Girard Avenue, Pedestrians Go A-Wading, Source: Ledger, May 22
    U.S. Water Power Authority Upheld, Commission Asserts Federal Pre-Eminence in Letter to Judge Hughes, Opinion in Connection With New York Rights in Niagara River Proposal, Source: A.P., May 18
  4. Chestnut Hill Dry For Several Hours, Householders Twice Cut Off From Water Supply by Breaks in Mains; Second Accident Quickly Followed Repairs to First; Stores Damaged, Source: Inquirer, May 26, 1926
  5. Water Diamond Chief of Shawmont Station, Stood Second in List After Recent Civil Service Examination, Source: Inquirer, May 5
  6. West Phila. Without Water at Supper Hour, Blockade Gate Slips in Main Duct; Repairs Hurriedly Made, Source: Inquirer, May 15
  7. New Main Will Increase Fern Rock Water Supply, Part of Plan for Improvement Throughout City, Source: Ledger, May 4
  8. Oak Lane Water Plant Sale to City Favored, Commissioner Benn to Recommend Transfer to Municipal System, Source: Ledger, June 11
  9. New Water Treaty Likely, New Jersey’s Revival of Negotiations With Other States Proposed, Source: Bulletin, June 11


  1. Water Co. Carries Out P.S.C. Order, Myerstown Group Satisfied With Adequate Service for Home and Fire Use, Source: Ledger, May 16
  2. Shawmont Pump Station to Change Power Tonight, Switch to Electricity Will Cause Shutting Off Water for 2 Hours, Source: Ledger, May 15
  3. Water Conservation is Convention Topic, Public Education on Supply Needed, Association President Asserts, Source: Inquirer, May 19
  4. City Water Plant to Cost $400,000, Supply to Be Increased by Nearly 100,000,000 Gallons Daily by Project, West Philadelphia to Get Double Present Quantity Through New Filter, Source: Inquirer, June 9
  5. New Jersey Delays Water Legislation, Lawmakers Heed Governor Moore’s Advice and Will Hold Hearing, Would End Dual Control, Source: Bulletin, June 23
  6. Wharton Tract, Again Becomes a Live Issue for New Jersey People, Source: Bulletin, June 24
  7. Water Supply Issue, Massmeeting Called at Fox Chase After Many Complaints, Source: Inquirer, July 8


  1. Photo title: Geyser Smashes Crater in Market Street, caption: The pavement was undermined when a big water main broke on Market Street near Front…, Source: Ledger, June 22, 1926
  2. Article attached to above photo, Stores Flooded as Big Main Bursts, Merchandise Ruined as 24-Inch Pipe Breaks on Market St. Near Front, Geyser Shoots 15 Feet, Source: Ledger, June 22, 1926
  3. M’Gowan Back on Payroll, Murdoch Confirms Report Regarding Water Engineer, Source: Bulletin, June 15
  4. West Phila. To Get Good Service, Source: Inquirer, June 16
  5. Tests Assure Oak Lane of Ample Water Supply, Suburban Company Plant Operates Under Municipal System, Source: Ledger, July 1
  6. Unifying the Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, July 2
  7. Water Bills Ready for Legislature, Further Evidence at Hearing Shows Little Need of Hasty Action, May Pick New Treasurer, Read’s Resignation to Go Before Joint Session in Jersey, Source: Record, July 7


  1. Two Water Plants Taken Over By City, Distribution Loop Relieving Shawmont Pumping Station Put in Operation, Pipes in Oak Lane District Now Served by Municipal System, Source: Inquirer, July 1
  2. Main Breaks, 300 Homes Lack Water, Without Supply for Hours and Streets in Northeast Section Are Flooded, Truck Sinks Up to Hubs, Source: Ledger, July 10
  3. Fox Chase Citizens Ask Quick Action on Water Repairs, Mass Meeting Hears Councilman Crossan and Bureau Officials, Protest on Frequent Breakdowns Will Be Sent to Mayor Kendrick, Source: Inquirer, July 9
  4. Water Plans Hit by Lack of Funds, Improvements May Have to Be Curtailed Unless Emergency Loan is Floated, Contract Awarded Will Double Supply to West Philadelphia Consumers, Source: Inquirer, July 1
  5. Water Shortage Evokes Protest, Supply Again Cut Off While Fox Chase Folk Are Numbering Complaints, Crossan Promises Relief, Source: Ledger, July 9
  6. Water to Cost $400,000, Public Work Department Opens Proposals for Improving System, Source: Ledger, July 2, 1926


  1. Fox Chase Water Supply Restored, Main Break, Second in Two Weeks, Repaired After Night Without Service, Protest Meeting Held, Source: Bulletin, July 9, 1926
  2. Water Shortage Alarms W. Phila., Residents Protest as Faucets Go Dry; Low Pressure General Throughout City, Drive on Street Bathers, Source: Ledger, July 11, 1926
  3. Water Main Blast Blocks Traffic, Woman’s Quick Action Prevents Serious Damage in Break at 15th and Mt. Vernon, Warns City of “Geyser,” Source: Ledger, July 12
  4. Lay Water Dearth to Street Bathing, Murdoch Blames Opening of Hydrants for Shortage in Homes Throughout City, City Employees Defended, Source: Bulletin, July 12
  5. Call Water Supply Normal, Officials Declare Pressure Restored in All Parts of City, Source: Bulletin, July 24
  6. Water Bureau Loses Competent Engineer, John Stanton Ely to Go to Newark for Much Higher Salary, Source: Record, July 15
  7. Fire Plug Bathing, Source: Bulletin, July 13
  8. City Worker Dies as Pipes Fall, Overturning Ladder, Skull is Fractured in Accident While Dismantling Garage, Source: Ledger, July 13
  9. Water Mains Are Repaired, Northeast Section’s Supply Renewed After Three Breaks, Source: Ledger, July 15


  1. Water Shortage Hits City With Heat 100 Again, Police Forced to Shut Off Cooling Showers for Children as precaution Against Fire, Many Homes Without Supply, Thousands Jam Parks as Mercury Climbs; Much Cooler Weather is Predicted Today, All Records Broken for July 22-Mills Shut Down-Four Die at Baltimore-Score Prostrated Here-Entire Atlantic Seaboard Suffering, Source: Ledger, July 22, 1926
  2. Water Shortage Reported Relieved, Officials Say Pressure is Higher, But West Phila. People Declare It Worse, Baths Are Turned Off, Source: Bulletin, July 23
  3. Water Troubles Blamed on Public, 80 Per Cent of Complaints Turn Out to Be Householders’ Fault, Says Murdoch, Minimizes Main Breaks, Source: Ledger, July 29, 1926
  4. Water Tank Break Does Damage, Source: Inquirer, August 6


  1. Another Warning of The Water-Supply Defects, The Latest Shortage Should Be Read as a Signal for Attacking a Problem Involving a Basic Civic Necessity, Source: Ledger, July 24, 1926
  2. Break Shuts Off Hospitals’ Water, Section of West Phila. Left “Dry” by Main Bursting at 33rd and Oxford Sts., Crater in The Roadway, Source: Bulletin, July 28, 1926
  3. Photo attached to above article, title: Main Burst Makes City Street a Lake, caption: Water pouring from a break in the 48-inch pipe leading from the East Park reservoir mined a crater in Oxford St., 20 feet west of 33rd at 5 a.m. today, Source: Bulletin, July 28, 1926
  4. Pipes Will Drain Schuylkill Mud, New Dam Feature May Remove Mud Flats and Return River to Old Channel, Sediment Balks Oarsmen, Source: Bulletin, July 26
  5. Gas Overcomes Three Employees of City, All Are Lifted Unconscious From Manhole, Source: Record, July 27


  1. Water System’s Needs, Source: Bulletin, July 29
  2. Men and Things, New York City makes Ready to Tap the Delaware River, Source: Bulletin, July 24
  3. City Water Supply is Back to Normal, Cooler Weather Brings Halt in Excessive Consumption-No Complaints Received, Reservoirs Are Filling Up, Source: Ledger, July 25, 1926
  4. Hundreds Without Water as Main on W. Chester Pike Breaks in Two, South Ardmore, Brookline, Llanerch and Oakmont Hit-Housewives Form Kettle Brigade to Get Supply at Wells, Source: Ledger, August 5, 1926
  5. Water Runs Low as City Sizzles On Its Hottest August 3 on Record, Homes Near Rittenhouse Square Cut Off, Due to Running of Fire Hydrants-Low Pressure in Other Districts-Mercury Hits 96 Degrees, Source: Ledger, August 4, 1926
  6. A Serious Water Problem, Source: Ledger, August 5
  7. Water Complaints Cease, Chief Murdoch Announces City’s Service is in “Perfect Tune,” Source: Ledger, July 28


  1. Water Adequacy, Source: Bulletin, August [?], 1926
  2. Reading Water Shortage Closes Swimming Pools, Large Consumers Asked to Conserve Supply-Reservoir Filters Clogged, Source: Ledger, August 19
  3. Cistern Water Kills Eight, Maryland Family Poisoned and Seven Others are Ill, Source: Bulletin, August 21
  4. Cleaning Up The Delaware, Source: Bulletin, August 9, 1926
  5. Water Complaints Cease, Chief Murdoch Announces City’s Service is in “Perfect Tune,” Source: Ledger, July 28 (exact same article as the one in 2004.014.0275)
  6. Why Water Pipes Break, Source: Record, August 3
  7. Municipal Street Showers, Source; Record, August 12
  8. “Those who work nights suffer most from the various breaks in water mains…” Source: Record, August 4
  9. Another Main Bursts, Source: Ledger, September 4
  10. No Water For Coffee, Overbrook Dry for Hour Just at Time for Breakfast, Source: Inquirer, August 25
  11. Water Stoppage Puzzles, Inspectors Search in Vain for Cause of West Phila. Shortage, Source: Ledger, August 28
  12. Main Break Floods Broad St. Houses, Water Two Inches Deep in Some Cellars Between Somerset St. and Glenwood Ave., Workmen Rush Repairs, Source: Bulletin, August 28
  13. Reading Closes Pools as Water Supply Fails, Clogging of Filter Beds Cuts 2,000,000 Gallons Daily From Regular Flow, Source: Record, August 8
  14. Broken Main Floods Street, Morris St. at Broad Inundated for Half Block, Source: Bulletin, August 30


  1. Photo title: Damage Wrought on 7th St. by Bursting Main, caption: Water pouring from a 30-inch main beneath 7th St, below Cherry…, Source: Bulletin, September 3, 1926
  2. Article attached to above photo, 8 Blocks Flooded When Main Breaks, More Than 50 Cellars Fill With Water Near 7th and Cheery Sts., Paving Ripped Up, Source: Bulletin, September 3, 1926
  3. Two Water Mains Burst and Flood Neighborhood, Pair of Policemen Get Drenched Putting Up Ropes, Source: Record, July 14
  4. Bursting Water mains, Other Breaks Are Feared; Emergency Crews Working, Geyser-Like Report Heard as Mains Break-Miniature Lake Forms at 15th and Spruce Sts.-Drainpipes Clog-Market St. Store Suffers Much Loss-Pavement is Torn Up, Source: [Bulletin], September 7, 1926
  5. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Bulletin, August 31, 1926
  6. Water Main Breaks Nothing New, Says Ex-Bureau Chief, Source: Daily News, September 8
  7. Water Main Break on 7th St., Tenth in City Since January 1, Source: Bulletin, September 3, 1926
  8. Water Undermines Walls, Storm and Pipe Break Make Trouble in Annex Excavation, Source: Bulletin, September 7, 1926


  1. Water Main Rips; Flooded Cellars Cause Heavy Loss, Damage Resulting From Break at 7th and Race Streets Put at $100,000, Many Buildings Damaged as Deluge Fills Streets, Paving Raised to Level of Curb as Main Spouts 10-Foot Geyser, Source: Ledger, September 3
  2. Photo attached to above article, title: Scene of Main Break and Boy Hero, caption: Upper photo shows the water which flooded streets and cellars after a break…Inset is of Michael Cavaliere…who aroused families in the neighborhood. Lower picture shows marble steps at 120 North 7th St. dislodged by the water. Source: Ledger, September 3
  3. West Phila. Area Goes ‘Waterless’, Shortage Affects Four-Block Section as Repairmen Search for Main Break, Apartments Hardest Hit, Source: Ledger, August 27
  4. Men and Things, Tax-Payer Knows Little As to How His Money is Expended, Source: Bulletin, September 9


  1. Section of Oak Lane is Without Water for Two Days; Residents Bitter, Accuse Water Bureau of Neglecting Them After Break in Main 20 Feet Below Ground-Officials Pass Buck, Source: Record, September 13, 1926
  2. $1,500,000 Given Biles for Water, Source: Ledger, September 16
  3. Water Row Stirs Oak Lane Section, Department Disputes Residents’ Assertion of No Supply Since Friday, Says Break is Remedied, Source: Ledger, September 13
  4. Haddonfield Asks State Water Test, Experts Summoned to Begin Survey of Municipal Supply and Plant, Only Town Affected, Source: Bulletin, September 14
  5. Water System Gets Aid, Source: Ledger, September 7
  6. Mystery Surrounds Sudden Increase in Use of Water Here, 30,000,000 Gallons Above Normal Being Consumed Daily, Wastage or Unexpected Need on Recent Extensions Blamed by Officials, Source: Inquirer, September 25
  7. Is New Danger Faced by Miami? Source: Inquirer, September 25
  8. New York Faces a Water Shortage, Little Rain Fell on Watersheds of Catskill Mountains That Supply City, Reserve Reservoirs Running Low; Inspection of Fixtures to Avoid Waste, Source: Inquirer, September 28
  9. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Poulson’s Advertiser, August 25, 192?


  1. Daily Water ‘Loss’ 30 Million Gallons, City Starts Inquiry to Solve Mystery of ‘Where’ and ‘Why’, Many Leaks May Be Clue, Source: Ledger, September 25
  2. Murdoch Lays Loss of Water to Buried Leaks, Mains 30 Years Old Causing Most Trouble, Though Some New Pipes Are Bursting, Appeals to Citizens to Report Seepage, People Too Inclined to View ‘Springs’ in Streets With Complaisance, He Says, Source: Ledger, September 26
  3. Three Leaks Found in Water Mains, “Trouble Spots” Believed to Account for Part of 30,000,000 Gallon Daily Loss, Source: Ledger, September 27
  4. Water Meter Plan Blamed for Waste, Universal System Urged as Only Way to Stop Big Increase in Consumption, Much of Trouble Laid to Leaks; Many Complaints Are Received, Source: Inquirer, September 28


  1. Complete Water Survey is Needed, Source: Evening News, September 29, 1926
  2. The Cost of Water That Runs to Waste, Metering and Rigid Inspection Would Conserve the Existing Supply and Postpone the Expense of New Sources, Source: Ledger, September 18
  3. “A sudden increase in the daily consumption of water, amounting to 30,000,000 gallons…” Source: Ledger, September 27
  4. Water Pressure Increased, Germantown Notified to See Plumbing is in Good Shape, Source not known
  5. Photo caption: A Broad Street Geyser, Yellowstone National Park conceded a point to Philadelphia yesterday when a workman on the Broad Street subway accidentally damaged a 12-inch main near Vine St…,Source: Inquirer, October 9, 1926
    Worn Out Water Plant, Source: Bulletin, September 27
  6. 30-Inch Water Main Breaks in Roxborough, Raw Supply Cascades to Reading Tracks and Trains Are Warned, Source: Inquirer, October 5
  7. Broad St. Geyser Formed by Break, Snapped Off by [?], Source: Bulletin, October 18


  1. Men and Things, Ancient Mains Cause Leakage of 30,000,000 Gallons a Day, Source: Bulletin, September 30, 1926
  2. Wanted-Water Improvements, Source: Bulletin, October 6
  3. 2 Districts to Get New Water Service, Increased Pressure Assured in Germantown and Chestnut Hill Sections, House Owners Warned to Have Plumbing Ready to Withstand Extra Force, Source: Inquirer, October 9
  4. Water Main Break Hits Manayunk, Feed Pipe From Schuylkill Into Shawmont Pumping Station Also Cracks, R.R. Tracks Are Flooded, Source not known, October 5
  5. “A water main broken by a workman’s pick ought not to be charged…” Source: Ledger, no date given


  1. The City’s Water Needs, Source: Bulletin, October 16
  2. Pure Water Urged For Public’s Use, State Expert Says Companies Are Responsible for Taste, Color and Odor, Source: Ledger, October 28
  3. City Water Supply is Declared Ample, System Rehabilitated Since Shawmont Breakdown, Murdock Reports to Biles, Immense Pumps Installed, Source: Ledger, October 30, 1926
  4. Allegheny Avenue Main Snaps, Hurling Water 60 Feet in Air, Workmen Battle Geyser 30 Minutes Amid Shower of Stones-Traffic Blocked Two Hours, Source: Ledger, October 30
  5. N.Y. City Water Supply Menaced by Basin Cracks, $160,000,000 Ashokan Reservoir in Catskills Is Virtually Empty, Source: Ledger, October 25
  6. The City’s Water Needs, Source: Bulletin, October 16
  7. Water Conservation, Source: Bulletin, November 2
  8. Plan to Shift 100 Jobs Out of Water Bureau, Will Remove Them All From Civil Service Restrictions, Source: Record, October 5
    City Water Waste is Put at $700,000, Research Bureau Says Use of Meters Would Save Phila. That Sum, Finds Survey is Needed, Source: Ledger, November 1
  9. Biles Fills 20 Jobs in Public Works Dept., Appoints Electrician to Water Bureau at Salary of $2400, Source not known
  10. Water Pressure Increased, Germantown Notified to See Plumbing is in Good Shape, Source not know, October 9 (same article as in 2004.014.0281)


  1. “No adequate or satisfactory explanation has been made by the head of the Water Bureau…” Source: Ledger, November 19
  2. Water Income Assessed, Source: Inquirer, November 19
  3. Will Gauge Water Waste, Director Biles Gets Bid of $63,650 for Survey With Pitometer, Source: Bulletin, November 9
  4. Man Break Floods Broad and Girard, Water Shoots 20 Feet, Then Flows Into Cellars; Thousands of Dollars Damage, 300 Work at Hasty Repair, Source: Ledger, November 15
  5. Water Supply Check-Up, Source: Ledger, no date given
  6. Council Must Cut Budget $6,500,000; $85,039,559 Asked, Source: Inquirer, October 15
  7. Men and Things, Water Rate Increase and Other High Points of Budget Work, Source: Bulletin, November 20
  8. Seek to Halt Water Waste, Municipal Research Bureau Advocates Prevention Campaign, Source: Bulletin, no date given


  1. City May Boost Its Water Rates Instead of Taxes, Hall Says System is Losing Money and Calls for Higher Meter Tariff, Works in Terrible Shape, Chief Murdoch Asks for Repair Money, But Item is Heavily Slashed, Wage Increases Denied, Bureau of Automobiles Called a Joke-Cash Appropriated to Maintain Stadium, Source: Record, November 19
  2. Stop Mayor’s Police Power, Hadley Urges, Controller Favors Commission Named by Board of Judges or the Governor, Suggests Court Pick Civil Service Members, Also Proposes Plan to Get Water in Greater Volume from Nearby Sources, Source: Ledger, November 21
  3. Water Wastage Attacked, Research Bureau Says Amount Used Would Supply a Larger City, Source: Ledger, November 19


  1. Hadley Opposes Water Rent Boost, Controller Disputes Hall’s Statement Bureau Loses $2,500,000 a Year, Hits at Police System, Source: Ledger, November 22
  2. Hall Still Claims Water Plant Loss, Calculations Based on Hadley’s Own Figures, He Tells Council, City Hall Political Tongues Wag Over Controller’s Break With Administration, Source: Inquirer, November 23
  3. Waterworks Pay Hadley Repeats, Controller Insists Statement Is Correct, Despite Retort of Charles B. Hall, Latter Hints at Reply, Source: Ledger, November 24
  4. Water Pays Profit, Controller Says Hall Probably Lacks Full Data in Alleging Loss, Mayor Silent on Dispute, Source: Bulletin, November 23
  5. The Hibernating Water Snake, Source: Record, November 22


  1. On Guard, Source: Bulletin, November 22, 1926
  2. Hadley Hurls War Gage at Hall-Kendrick, Controller Threatens Council President With Exposure of Water Rate Boosts, Victory Year Ago Over High Officials in Secret Session Mentioned in Holiday Blast at Administration, Source: Inquirer, November 22
  3. Controller Insists Water Works Pay, Hadley Has No Fear of Hall Using Alternative Figures to Contradict Him, Rumors of Water Lease, City Hall Buzzing With Vague Talk of Syndicate Taking Over City System, Source: Record, November 4
  4. Water Pipe Break Endangers Traffic, Ice and Slush on Columbia Ave., Near 7th St. Imperil Many, Source: Bulletin, December 3
  5. 30 Ft. Geyser Fills West Phila. Street, Shoots From Trolley Tracks at 49th Above Woodland Ave. When Pipe is Broken, Workmen Flee Scene, Source: Bulletin, December 15
  6. New Water Supply Chestnut Hill Gift, Opening of 25,000,000-Gallon Pump Wednesday Will Prevent Repetition of “Dry” Spell, Helps Germantown, Too, Source: Bulletin, December 20
  7. Water Main Leak Held Big Menace, Park Ave. and Dauphin St. Residents Declare Resultant Ice Endangers Traffic, P.R.T. Uses Tons of Salt, Source: Evening [Paper], January 13
  8. Main Break Perils Traffic, Source: Ledger, December 9



  1. Photo caption: View of the New $600,000 Fairmount Dam, Which is Nearing Completion, Scene from the north side of the Art Museum…, Source: Bulletin, December 16, 1926
  2. Plans to Prevent Water Pipe Breaks, Murdoch Proposes Mains Under Sidewalks So Trucks Would Not Snap Small Pipes, Saving to Householders, Source: Bulletin, December 17, 1926
  3. Conservation of Water, Source: Bulletin, January 14
  4. Gas, Water Mains Burst in Camden, Men Trying to Stop Break Routed When Fumes Escape From Other Pipe, City Supply is Hard Hit, Source: Ledger, January 28, 1927


  1. New Water Supply Source is Sought, Phillip H. Gadsden Pledges Chamber of Commerce to Intensive Campaign, Study Proposed Sites, Source: Bulletin, January 24
  2. A Field for Public Service, Source: Bulletin, January 25
  3. Delaware River Water, Source: Ledger, January 16
  4. C. of C. Will Urge New Water Supply, Campaign Plans Announced by Gadsden After His Re-Election to Presidency, 1926 Achievements Listed, Source: Ledger, January 24
  5. Water Company Ordered to File Tariff Supplement, Source: Ledger, December 30
  6. West Manayunk Gets Water Mains, New System Will Replace Cistern and Pump in Isolated Section of Lower Merion, Better Fire Protection, Source: Bulletin, January 24
  7. Delaware Control Urged in New Pact, Adoption of Revised River Agreement Advocated in State Commerce Chamber Reports, Annual Sessions Opened, Source: Ledger, January 27
  8. Main Break in Kensington, Water Spouts in Air, Tears Hole in Street and Delays Trolleys, Source: Bulletin, December 4
  9. Water Compact Near Goal, State Chamber and Waterways Commission End Series of Meetings, Source: Ledger, December 30
  10. Sign Tri-State Water Pact, Penna., N.Y. and N.J. Apportion Delaware River Supply, Source: Bulletin, January 12
  11. The Water Treaty, Source: Ledger, January 15
  12. Urges Water Metering, City Must Install System, Engineers Tell Mayor, Source: Bulletin, February 8


  1. Tri-State Treaty on Delaware Water, Source: Ledger, January 30
  2. The Bushkill Dam for Water Supply, The Tri-State Agreement for the Use of the Delaware Makes It Available for the Use of Philadelphia, Source: Ledger, February 10
  3. Water Supply Dam on the Upper Delaware, Source: Record, February 10


  1. Rising Consumption Threatens Crisis in City Water Supply, Universal Meterage or Expansion Held Only Solutions to Problem, Administration Loath to Leave Huge Project to Embarrass Next Mayor, Source: Inquirer, February 8
  2. Trenton Will Protest Tri-State Water Pact, Source: Record, February 4
  3. Huge Loss of Water, Survey Reveals Great Waste Due to Many Leaks, Source: Daily News, February 12
  4. First Step in Water Service, Source: Bulletin, February 14
  5. Water Supply Problem is Acute, Source: Daily News, February 10
  6. Moore Sees Phila. Owing One Billion, Former Mayor Warns Business Men of Growing Debt Danger, Hits Proposed City Contracts, Including Water Supply Dam Project, Source: Inquirer, February 10
  7. Water Compact Under Acid Test in Jersey Senate, Report is Received and Public Hearing Set for February 28, Paving Bill Battle Opens, Source: Record, February 16
  8. Trenton’s Fears, Source: Ledger, February 12


  1. Swaab Locates Adequate Water Source for City, New Site on Delaware Above Water Gap Is Announced by Engineer to Commerce Chamber Board, Tri-State Treaty Will Allow Construction of Dam at Bushkill Creek to Develop Impounding Basin, Source: Inquirer, February 9, 1927
  2. Engineers Praise Swaab Water Plan, F.C. Dunlap and J.W. Ledoux Endorse Proposal to Build Dam Near Milford, Would Cost $227,000,000, Source: Bulletin, February 9
  3. Photo attached to above article, “Engineers Praise Swaab Water Plan,…” title: Proposed Dam Site, caption: Map of the Delaware River section from Philadelphia northward,…Source: Bulletin, February 9


  1. Next Mayor to Get Water Supply Plan, Kendrick Administration Loath to Begin Work on Swaab’s Scheme, Enemies of Perkiomen-Tohickon Project Praise Proposal of City Engineer, Source: Inquirer, February 10, 1927
  2. Civic Heads Oppose Swaab Water Plan, Balk at Cost of $227,000,000 to Obtain Supply From Upper Delaware River, Northeast Makes Survey, Source: Ledger, February 10
  3. Men and Things, Engineer Swaab Turns to Hering Survey of 40 Years Ago, Source: Bulletin, February 11
  4. Defends Damming of Delaware River, New Jersey Engineer Declares It Would Not Diminish Any Town’s Water Supply, Trenton Fights Treaty, Source: Bulletin, February 11, 1927
  5. Break Cuts Water Supply, Small Chestnut Hill Area Affected by Leak in Main, Source: Bulletin, February 22


  1. Photo title: Site on Upper Delaware Where Mayor’s Engineer Suggests City Should Go For Its Water Supply, caption: How the Delaware Looks Today at Site of Dam Suggested by Mr. Swaab-The picture was taken from the Pennsylvania shore four miles down stream from Bushkill,…Source: Bulletin, February 14, 1927
  2. Photo caption: Diagram Locating Past and Present Philadelphia Water Supply Suggestions…Source: Bulletin, February 14, 1927
  3. Trenton Attacks Water Agreement, Source: Ledger, February 11
  4. In the Day’s News, Source: Ledger, February 12
  5. New Water Supply to Wait Till ’28, Mayor Decides Not to Attempt Improvement During Administration, Expects $80,000,000 Fund, Source: Ledger, February 10


  1. Men and Things, Tri-State Compact Allots the Water of the Delaware, Source: Bulletin, February 15
  2. Giant Water Main Floods Wide Area, 36-Inch Line Snaps at Park Ave. and Cumberland St., Causing Heavy Damage, Germantown Has Break, Source: Ledger, February 23
  3. Water Main Leaks Found in W. Phila. Survey to Trace 5,000,000 Gallon Daily Waste Reveals 40th and Market Break, Each Block is Tested, Source: Bulletin, February 12
  4. With Only Half of West Philadelphia Surveyed, 2,500,000-Gallon Wastage is Stopped, House Owners Pay Costs, Source: Ledger, no date given


  1. Men and Things, Entrenched Opposition Seeks to Block Stream Protection Bill, Source: Bulletin, February 24
  2. Men and Things, State Sanitary Board has Its Own Ideas of Stream Protection, Source: Bulletin, February 25
  3. More Leaks, Source: Ledger, no date given


  1. Dilly-Dallying, Source: Bulletin, February 24
  2. Aid of Water Pact urged Upon Fisher, Commerce Chamber Tells Governor Tri-State Agreement is Vital to City, Gives List of Benefits, Source: Ledger, February 25
  3. Plugging the Water Leaks, Source: Bulletin, February 28
  4. Blame Water Row as Home is Burned, Eleven Companies Stand By Helplessly as Mt. Ephraim Bungalow is Destroyed, Family of Three Menaced, Source: Ledger, February 24
  5. New Jersey Senate Gets Water Pact, Three States Linked in Agreement to Control Pollution of Delaware River, Limit Places on Use, Source: Bulletin, February 28
  6. “We don’t understand it, we don’t understand it at all…” Source: Inquirer, February 23
  7. Picknickers Menace Water Sources, Source: Inquirer, December 24, 1926
  8. Voice Opposition to Water Compact, N.J. Towns’ Delegates Say Proposed Distribution of Delaware River is Unfair to State, Hearing at Trenton, Source: Bulletin, March [5]
  9. Warns of Water Famine, Ladner Urges Business Club to Back Anti-Pollution Bill, Source: Bulletin, February 21


  1. Photo #1 caption: This Great Wooden Water Pipe Winding Like a Huge Serpent is the “flow line” of the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company’s recently completed Wallenpaupack hydro-electric development, the power house of which is located on the Lackawaxen River adjacent to the Erie Railroad….Source: Bulletin, March 1, 1927
  2. Photo #2 title: The Art Museum Viewed From The West Bank of the Schuylkill, caption: This Striking View Shows the Magnificent Structure, its exterior almost completed, standing at the head of the Parkway on an elevation formerly known as “Reservoir Hill,”…Source: Bulletin, March 4, 1927
  3. [?] Practicable, Source not known, March 7
  4. The Trenton Water Hearing, Source: [Bulletin], March 7


  1. Photo title: As The Great Conowingo Dam Over the Susquehanna, caption: View of the Fortress-Like Structure From the East Shore…Source: Bulletin, March 1, 1927
  2. Northeast Power Parley on Monday, P.R.T. Engineers and City Officials to Confer on Wingohocking Creek Substitute, No Damages Are Allowed, Source: Ledger, March 4
  3. Trenton Attacks Water-Pact Plan, Counsel Asserts Proposed Delaware River Treaty Would Benefit Only Penna. And N.Y., Hamilton Defends Idea, Source: Ledger, March 1
  4. The Water Controversy, Source: Ledger, March 7


  1. Grundy Under Fire in Pure Water Bill, Attack in Manufacturers’ Association Bulletin Stirs Up Anger, Wealth Before Health, Philadelphia Council and Local Legislators Favor the Measure, Source: Record, March 2
  2. If The Water Pact Fails, Source: Ledger, March 8
  3. Tri-State Water, Fight Camden Annexation, Source: Record, February 29
  4. Tri-State Pact Hits a Snag at Trenton, Source: Inquirer, March 8
  5. Defeat of Water Pact is Foreseen, Hearing Before Legislature Falls Into Highly Technical Discussion of Data, Another Session Monday, Source: Ledger, March 8
  6. State Will Study Sources of Water, Service Board Orders Engineers to Survey Conditions in Eastern Sheds, Joins With Health Heads, Source: Ledger, March 16


  1. Photo title: Newly Completed Fairmount Dam With The Schuylkill Rushing Over Its Crest, caption: Looking From the West Bank of the River…Source: Bulletin, November 15
  2. Will Jersey Refuse? Source: Bulletin, March 19
  3. N.Y. To Go 150 Miles For Water Supply, Asks Legislative Right to Build Chain of Reservoirs Along Hudson, Will Cost $400,000,000, Source: Ledger, March 18
  4. Urge Segregation For Water Supply, Engineers Would Regulate Industrial Sites to Insure Pure Drinking Systems, Experts Meet in City Hall, Source: Ledger, March 26
  5. 2004.014.0302
  6. Photo caption: High Waters of Spring Pour Merrily Over the New Fairmount Dam…Source: Inquirer, March 14, 1927
  7. Hope Revived for Tri-State Pact, Source: Inquirer, March 26
  8. A Water Survey, Source now known
  9. Ex-Mayor Views and the World, Source: Record, March 29
  10. Water Survey Ordered, Attention of State Engineers Will Center on Delaware, Lehigh and Schuylkill, Source: Inquirer, March 16
  11. City Block Flooded When Main Bursts, Geyser, Leaping Ten Feet High, Rips Up South Street Paving; Fills Cellars, Thousands of Dollars Worth of Store Stocks Ruined by Rushing Torrents, Source: Inquirer, March 31
  12. Plans for Study of Water Supply, Service Board Suggest Conference That Would Interest Three States, Source: Record, April 13


  1. Water Company Providing for Growth in Suburban Population, Philadelphia-Suburban Concern Has Spent $3,000,000 in Last Year for Improvements and Extensions, Source: Ledger, April 10
  2. Job Let to Protect Northeast Water, Four of Five Sections Are Awarded for Five-Mile Collector Sewer, Begins $5,000,000 Project, Source: Ledger, April 10, 1927
  3. Water Pact Doomed, Tri-State Treaty Dead for Session as Far as Penna. Is Concerned, Source: Ledger, March 29
  4. Water Famine, Source: [Daily News], April 8
  5. Metering Declared Chief Water Need, 15-Year Supply Assured by Eliminating Wastage, Experts Tell Taxpayers, Additional Filters and Removal of System From Politics Urged at Frankford, Source: Inquirer, April 1
  6. Water Protection, Source: Ledger, April 11
  7. Tri-State Treaty, Source: Ledger, April 10


  1. Water Engineers Want More Meters, Experts Agree This Is Way To Check Waste and Raise Funds for New System, Advise Northeast C. of C., Source: [Inquirer], April 1
  2. Tri-State Water Treaty, Ex-Governor Stokes, of New Jersey, Gives Reasons for Opposing Pact, Source: Ledger, April 16
  3. Uniform Meterage of Water is Urged, Board of Trade Committee Estimates Daily Consumption Would Drop 344,000,000 Gallons, Made Survey in 29 Cities, Source: Ledger, April 28
  4. Elmwood Water Main Being Rushed, New Service in Growing Southwest Area Ready for Use in Few Weeks, Will Serve Wide Section, Source: Ledger, April 13
  5. Third of City Water Declared Wasted, Board of Trade Tells Mayor Meters Would halt Loss of 100,000,000 Gallons Daily, Torresdale Plant Praised, Source: Ledger, February 24
  6. Water Probe Rumor Worries City Hall, Possibility of Grand Jury Investigation of System Next Month Reported, Administration Circles Fear Flareback as in Street Paving Matter, Source: Inquirer, April 28
  7. Water Meters, Source: Ledger, April 28


  1. Commerce Groups Begin Water Study, Gadsden Says Chamber Has No Thought of Politics in the Investigation, Meter System Advocated, Source: Ledger, April 25
  2. Tri-State Water Pact Shelved at Harrisburg, Sterling Ratification Bill is Sent Back to a House Committee, Source: Inquirer, April 12
  3. Seek to Forestall City Water Probe, Hall Cites Improvements in System During the Debate in Council, Would Also have Administration’s Accomplishments Told to Grand Jury, Source: Inquirer, April 24
  4. Council for Water Pact, Indorses Tri-State Deal for Use of Delaware River, Source: Ledger, April 11
  5. Water! Water! but-West Phila. Residents Hit by Broken Street Main, Source: Daily News, April 20
  6. Water Vent Holds Boy Prisoner 20 Minutes, Child, 3, Has Foot Caught on Way to Buy Candy; Provoked by Delay, Source: Inquirer, April 16
  7. City-Wide Meters, New Water Plan, Ordinance Aiming at Conservation of Supply Introduced in Council, 400,000 To Be Installed, Source: Ledger, May 19
  8. Universal Meters Unlikely, Installation Would Cause $4 Rise in Water Service, is Belief, Source: Bulletin, May 21
  9. Metered Water, Source: Ledger, May 18
  10. Council Will Air Water Meter Bill, Cost About $20 to Each Property Owner Under Compulsory Use Proposed in Ordinance, Source: Bulletin, May 21


  1. Photo title: Under Consideration for Philadelphia’s Water Supply, caption, One of the proposition advanced for obtaining an adequate water supply for this city is to use the Lehigh Canal right of way for bringing the new water here. Two of the suggested sites are the Pocono region and the Perkiomen Valley, Source: Ledger, May 15
  2. Experts Start Search for New Water Supply, Complete Plan to Be Ready Before Next Mayor Takes Office, Technical, Financial Officials Sift Data, Perkiomen, Pocono and Delaware River Projects All to Be Considered, First Aim is Metering to Save Present Supply, Engineers, in Close Touch With Bankers and Business Men, Then Will Visit Fields, Source: Ledger, May 15


  1. Water Meters For All Homes Ordered in Bill, Measure Sent to Council by Hall to Put Stop to Waste, Householders Bear Cost of New Device, Installments Will Be Added to Bills Every Three Months for Five Years, City Expected to Pay For Extra Piping Necessary, Bill Sponsored by Chamber of Commerce Goes to Public Works Committee, Source: Ledger, May 20
  2. Another Water Survey, Source: Ledger, May 16
  3. Compulsory Water Metering, Source: Bulletin, May 21
  4. Problem of Universal Water Meterage, Source: Inquirer, May 21
  5. $4 Rise is Likely on Water Meters, If New Plan Is Adopted, Minimum Rate Must Go From $8 to $12, Leaders Say, $8,000,000 Outlay for City, Source: Ledger, May 21
  6. Declares Water Metering Wouldn’t Reduce Use, Source: Record, June 6


  1. Metering Bill Bared as Work of Private Firm, Framed by Engineering Firm; Introduced in Council by Hall, Backers Defend It as Bid For Business, Measure Aboveboard, Lowest Price Would Win, Says Aqua Company Official, Murdoch Favors System as Way to End Waste, Close Scrutiny by Council is Promised-Action This Year Held Unlikely, Source: Ledger, May 25
  2. Men and Things, Practice of Other Cities Points the Way for Water Metering, Source: Bulletin, May 24


  1. Water-Meter Bill Faces Long Quiz, Biles to Analyze Ordinance While Council Defers All Action, Sponsors Defend Plan, Source: Ledger, May [23]
  2. Homes at 5th and Girard Flooded by Main Break, Source: Daily News, June 6
  3. Water Meter Bill Faces Long Delay, Sponsor is Disclosed as Company Formed to Manufacture Appliances, Hall Not Pushing It, Source: Bulletin, June 25
  4. Source of the Water Meter Bill, Source: Inquirer, May 28
  5. The Water-Meter Bill, Source: Ledger, May 25
  6. Juicy Contract Is Seen in Water Meters Project, Compulsory Installation Unlikely, However, in Face of Coming Election, Would Be $6,000,000 Job, Source: Record, May 21
  7. Water Metering Hung Up, Source: Bulletin, no date given
  8. Public Water Supplies Safe, Says U.S. Chemist, Only Private Wells Dangerous for Tourist, He Tells Convention, Source: Ledger, June 7


  1. Men and Things, Sensible Solution of Water Problem Proposed by Unpaid Experts, Source: Bulletin, June 6
  2. Water Main Break Floods 5th St. at Girard Ave., Motorist Stalled and Drenched-Residents Without Water Supply, Source: Bulletin, June 6
  3. Thousands in Manayunk Go Without Gas, Freak Break in Main Affects 9000 Homes, Imperiling Community, Blast Caused Trouble, Hundreds of Employees Rushed to Scene to Protect Patrons, Source: Record, June 8
  4. Water-Main Break Ties Up Market St., Rotted Pipe Fails at 9th, Flooding Block-Six Feet of Paving Sinks, Area Roped Off All Night, Source: Ledger, June 9


  1. $20,000 City Loss on Coal Claimed, Firm Charges Discrimination in Purchase of Fuel for Water Plant, Biles Bans River Variety for Barley, Blaming Breakdowns on Former Type, Source: Inquirer, June 8
  2. [V]acationist Warned of Water Perils, Typhoid and Other Diseases Lurk in Many Wells and Streams, Krusen Says, Milk From Many Farms Unsafe, Too; Boiling Is Safest Measure, Source: Inquirer, June 20
  3. Water Main Leaks Bared by Survey, Daily Wastage of 6,000,000 Gallons Halted, Chief Murdoch Reports, Repair 2500 Bad Valves, Source: Ledger, July 2
  4. “Under the heading that graces this column there was printed no so long ago a dissertation regarding canoeists…” Source: Record, June 14
  5. Water Famine Follows Orthodox St. Main Break, Area Between Large St. and Adams Ave. Roped Off Two Hours, Source: Ledger, July 2
  6. Market St. Roped Off Following Main Break, North Side East of 9th St. Closed on Account of Cave-in, Source: Ledger, July 9
  7. It Was Water, Anyway, Source: Ledger, July 20
  8. City Water Pure, Survey Reveals, Filter Plants Disinfected 342,000,000 Gallons Daily in 1926, Research Bureau Says, Biggest is at Torresdale, Source: Ledger, [?] 8
  9. Water Pressure Low, Bureau Says it is Due to Children Turning on Plugs, Source: Bulletin, July 16
  10. Runnemede Manor, N.J., Residents Meet to Discuss $105,000 Project, Source: Bulletin, July 27


  1. Repairs End Peril to Water Supply, Electric Pumps at Torresdale Can Meet All Demands, Says Bureau Chief, Old Steam Boilers Gone, Source: Ledger, July 17
  2. New York Plans to Divert Water From Delaware, Would Take 600,000,000 Gallons From Tributaries of Upper River, Cost Is $272,587,000, Source: Record, July 29
  3. West Phila. Water Supply Doubled, Thirty Filter Beds Added to Equipment at Belmont Station, Shortage Fears Are Ended, Source: Ledger, July 30
  4. [M]unicipal Pigeons [B]athe in Ice Water, [Ch]eaper to Place Ice in Drinking Fountains Than Employ Men to Fill Them, [Bi]rds Seem Grateful, Source: Bulletin, July 30
  5. Oppose Water Plan, N.J. Group Says Diversion of Delaware Would Imperil Trenton Supply, Source: Bulletin, July 30


  1. Dividing the Delaware, Source: Record, July 30
  2. Delaware River Water Diversion Fight Predicted, Valley Protective Association Promises Opposition in Courts, Bridge Plans Opposed, Source: Record, July 30
  3. New York to Tap the Delaware, Source: Bulletin, July 30
    Iron in Water Bothers Camden, But Remedy Near, Expert Engineer Will Make Tests With Alkali From Seaweed, Pure, But Discolored, Source: Record, August 4
  4. A Water Treaty Needed, Source: Ledger, July 30
  5. New Filters Double Local Water Supply, 30 Beds Under Construction at Belmont Station-Large Main Being Laid Here, Source: West Philadelphia Time, August 5
  6. A Warning to Philadelphia, Source: Bulletin, August 15
  7. Water Links Under Way, West Philadelphia High Pressure Service Nearing Completion, Source: Inquirer, August 25


  1. No Water, So Firemen Carry Away Large Shed in Path of Flames, West Manayunk Volunteer Chief’s Quick Wit Saves Farmer’s Home After Chickens Perish in Blaze, Cynwyd Men Aid in Moving, Source: Ledger, July 21
  2. Water We Drink, Some Facts About Our Water Supply and Its Underground Ways, Source: Bulletin, August 15
  3. P.S.C. Turns Down Big Water Merger, Financing Described as ‘Fictitious Increase of Indebtedness’, Commission Refuses Filing of Notification Certificates for $9,200,000 Bonds, Source: Inquirer, September 23
  4. Fitted For the Place, Source: Bulletin, September 8, 1927
  5. Pipe Break Floods Street, Water Forms in Front of Steamship Pier on Delaware Avenue, Source: Ledger, June 3
  6. Bus Snaps Fire Plug, Source: Inquirer, August 10


  1. “The Story of My First Job,” Alexander Murdoch’s Experience, Source: Record, September 12, 1927
  2. Photo caption: Shawmont Pumping Station Rehabilitated, Samuel Thompson, superintendent, and Alexander Murdoch, chief of the Water Bureau, were photographed yesterday in the rebuilt Shawmont Pumping Station…, Source: Inquirer, October 13
  3. Water Company Merger Banned by Service Board, [?]ees No Advantage in Tying Up Separated Concerns, Source: Ledger, September 14
  4. Municipal Water and Municipal Light, Source: Inquirer, September 18
  5. 2nd St. Caves at Diamond, Break in Water Main Undermines Cobblestone Pavement, Source: Ledger, October 19
  6. City Water Plants Put in Fine Shape, Source: Ledger, October 16


  1. Vivian Shirley Learns All About Water, Source not known, August 20, 1927
  2. Water Famine Threatens City Swaab Asserts, Mayor’s Engineer Says Immediate Steps Are Necessary to Avert Disaster, Meterage Urged as Means of Conserving Supply Until Extension Plans Can Be Put Into Effect, Source: Inquirer, October 14
  3. Water Main Break at 4th and Jefferson Floods 3 Blocks, Gravel Hurled Against Third-Story Windows and Many Cellars Filled as Stream Sweeps to Girard Ave., Large Section Undermined; Trolley Cars Re-Routed, Source: Bulletin, October 18


  1. Photo title: Water Main Break Causes a Geyser, caption: Water spouting into the air on Belmont Ave. near Lansdowne Drive, in Fairmount Park, after a break…, Source: Bulletin, October 17
  2. Article attached to above photo, Water Main Break Floods Park Work, Geyser Near Columbus Monument Caves in Ditch at New Pipe Connection, Heavy Rain is Blamed, Source: Bulletin, October 17
  3. To Extend Water Service, Source: Ledger, August 7
  4. Water Pollution in Penna. Assailed, Grover C. Ladner Tells Association Condition of Streams Is ‘Simply Scandalous’, Advocates Change in Law, Source: Ledger, October 21
  5. Water Main Break Floods Streets, Geyser Spouts Fifty Feet as Truck Crushes Manhole at Mascher and Gurney, Onlookers Are Showered, Source: Ledger, October 24
  6. 35th Ward Seeks New Water Supply, Petition Goes to Service Board for Permission to Use Private Concern’s System, City Mains Too Far Away, Source: Ledger, October 21
  7. $6000 Bid to Purify Water, Source: Ledger, October 20
  8. S. Broad St. Unit of New Tube Begun, Excavating and Decking Operations Start Just North of Pine Street, Water Main Tested Today, Source: Ledger, November 3, 1927
  9. Market St. Water Main Break Hampers Traffic, Paving Bulges Between 12th and 13th Sts.-Section Roped Off, Source: Record, October 26
  10. Water Spouts 35 Feet, Landslide Smashes Main Near Columbus Monument in Park, Source: Ledger, October 20
    Water Company Mergers Are Declared Beneficial, Source: Ledger, October 20


  1. Daily Talks With Thinking Philadelphians on Subjects They Know Best, Source: Ledger, October 21
  2. Paoli Political Boss To Cut Off Water Supply of Independent Voter, Architect Says A.W. Supplee Also Threatened to Kill His Dogs After Bitter Fight-Row Going Into Court, Source: Record, October 24
  3. Photo caption: Frankford Business Men Inspect Enlarged Water Plant, Work is about completed on the Torresdale filtration plant, which has been undergoing improvement…Source: Ledger, November 23
  4. Article attached to above photo, Improved Water Plant Inspected, Torresdale Filtration Station Wins Approval of Business Men of Frankford, Big Increase in Capacity, Source: Ledger, November 23
  5. Water-Main Geyser Halts Traffic, Floods Subway, Hundreds Witness “Deluge” When Pipe Breaks in Penn Square, Source: Ledger, September 11
  6. Big Water Main to Be Laid, Source: Ledger, November 25


  1. Photo caption: During Frankford Business Men’s Inspection of the Torresdale Filtration Plant-Alexander Murdoch,…is shown holding up to the light a bottle filled with raw water from the Delaware River…Source: Bulletin, November 23
  2. Murdoch is Slated For Public Works, City Hall Hears, Water Bureau Head May Be Director in Mackey’s Cabinet, Seth M. Van Loan, Deputy Water Chief, Said to Be Listed for Promotion, Source: Inquirer, December 3
  3. Water-Main Break Cuts Off Germantown Supply, Engineers Search Many Hours Before Finding Cause of Trouble, Source: Ledger, November 20
  4. Broken Main Leaves Northeast Waterless, Fox Chase, Lawndale and Vicinity Affected by Drought, Source: Bulletin, November 23
  5. More Water Power, Source: Ledger, October 27
  6. N.J. Stresses Need of Water Treaty, Source: Ledger, December 9
  7. More Than a Mistake, Source: Bulletin, December
  8. Fire Plug Causes Flood, Out of Order in Frankford When Used in Flush Street, Source: Bulletin, December 7
    Two Water Mains Burst, Streets Flooded at 8th and Walnut and at 20th and Spruce, Source: Ledger, December 24
  9. Water Bureau Bids Opened, Proposals Include Ash Hauling From Pumping Stations, Source: Ledger, December 7


  1. Photo title: Raging Torrents Flood Broad Street, caption: Whirling eddies, giving the impression of a river at flood height…The picture shows Broad Street from Sansom Street to Walnut, Source: Ledger, November 5, 1927
  2. Article attached to above photo: Water-Main Break Floods Broad St., Big Buildings Between Sansom and Walnut Streets Are Menaced, Pipe Snaps in Tube Work, Source: Ledger, November 5, 1927
  3. 5 Cents or Wet Feet? Broad St. Ferries Thrive, Source not known
  4. 50 Imperiled by Main Break in New Subway, Workers Narrowly Escape Being Trapped as Rushing Waters Flood Excavation, Blast Feared as Flood Reaches 2 Steam Shovels, Big Crowd Gathers Quickly at Scene, Broad St. Between Spruce and Pine, Source not known, December 29, 192[8]


  1. Reveals Water Plan, $100,000,000 For City Water Not Necessary, Murdoch Says $5,000,000 For Present Plant Will Eliminate Need of Outside Supply, Probable Mackey Choice for Director of Public Works Outlines Plans to Councilmen on Tour, Source: Inquirer, December 29
  2. Water-Supply Plans, Source: Ledger, December 20
  3. Murdoch Slated to Succeed Biles, Water Chief to Be Director of Public Works in Mackey’s Cabinet, Myers for Transit Post, Source: Ledger, December 31
  4. Workmen in Subway Flee as Main Breaks, Steam Shovels, Trucks and Other Material Submerged in South Broad St. Flood, Source: Inquirer, December 30
  5. The City’s Water Needs, Source: Bulletin, December 30, 1927
  6. Subway Cleared, 16 Hours Required to Pump Out Broad Street Excavation After Main Bursts, Fifty Men Barely Escape, Source: Ledger, December 30
  7. Water Main Breaks, Broken Pipe at 17th and Wolf Sts. Sends Flow Over Street, Source: Bulletin, December 31



  1. Photo title: Directors Named by Mayor-Elect Mackey, caption: shows 6 directors, Source: Ledger, January 2, 1928
  2. Photo #2 title: Mayor and Cabinet Members Greet Public at City Hall Reception, caption: Mayor Harry A. Mackey and his party photographed in his office…, Source: Ledger, January 2, 1928
  3. New Mayor Promises, Purify the Schuylkill, Source: Ledger, January 2, 1928
  4. Water on Street Freezes, Break at 5th and Jackson Results in Pond of Slush and Ice, Source: Ledger, January 4


  1. Photo caption: First Meeting of Mayor Mackey and His Cabinet at City Hall…Source not known


  1. May Again Head City Water Bureau, Mackey Wants Dunlap Named as Water Chief, Expert Ousted by Kendrick May Get Temporary Appointment, Pension Eligibility Issue, Source: Record, January 7, 1928
  2. Mackey Proposes, Source: Ledger, January 5
  3. “Seth M. Van Loan, deputy chief of the Bureau of Water…” Source: Bulletin, July 5
  4. “Alexander Murdoch, Director of Public Works…” Source: Bulletin, January 2, 1928
  5. Murdoch to Ask Water Pump Bids, Four More Needed at Belmont Station to Avert Famine, New Director Declares, Aides Not Yet Appointed, Source: Ledger, January 3
  6. Scranton Water System is Sold, Federal Corporation Pays $27,705,000 and Assumes Bonded Debt, Source: Record, January 10
  7. Water Main Break at Broad and Wood Hurls Paving in Air, Motorist Narrowly Escapes Shower of Stone as Torrent Floods Elks’ Club, New Subway, Prepared for Mishap, Suffers Little, Source: Bulletin, [July]
  8. No Morning Bath, Mt. Airy, Germantown, Without Water While Pipes Are Repaired, Source: Evening News, January 3


  1. Photo title: Harry A. Mackey Realizes Lifelong Ambition as He Takes Oath as Mayor of Philadelphia, caption: nine photos of men, Source: Ledger, January 8, 1928
  2. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Gazette, January 6, 1928
    Main Breaks, Flooding Homes on S. Phila. Sts., Residents of Federal and Bucknell Are Victims of Geyser, Source: Ledger, January 8
  3. Little Typhoid in Phila., Only 75 Cases Orginated Here Last year, City’s Lowest Record, Source: Ledger, January 4
  4. Water for the Future, Source: Ledger, January 16


  1. Named Water Chief, Dunlap Returns to $10,000 Post, Dropped by Kendrick, Mackey Has Him Appointed Water Bureau Chief, [Fe]els Injustice was Done, Source: Ledger, January 8, 1928
  2. Water Bureau Head, Source: Bulletin, January 9
  3. Dunlap Old Place, Former Water Bureau Chief Can Have Job at Least Long Enough for Pension, Ely Might Come Later, Source: Bulletin, January 7
  4. New Water Chief Surveys Plants, Dunlap, Dropped by Kendrick, Now Heads Bureau, for Third Time, “No Split With Murdoch,” Source: Ledger, January 10
  5. W. Phila. Growls Over Its Water, Some Residents Say It Tastes Like Crude Oil; Others, Like Carbolic Acid, Up-State Plants Blamed, Source: Ledger, January 16
  6. Dunlap, Water Chief, Source: Ledger, January 10
  7. Mayor to Appeal for State Aid in Water Program, No Money for Project, Source: Record, January 20
  8. Cold Bursts Main, Street and Subway Entrance Are Coated With Ice, Source: Inquirer, January 5


  1. Water Chief Dead, Fred C. Dunlap, Water Bureau Head, Dies of Pneumonia, Death Comes Suddenly From Cold Contracted Two Weeks Ago, Official Deposed by Kendrick, Was Reappointed by Mayor Mackey, Source: Inquirer, January 26, 1928
  2. A Water District as Part of a Comprehensive Plan, The Mayor is Beginning to Consider the Pressing Needs of the Metropolitan Area, Source: Ledger, January 21
  3. Noxious Water, Source: Bulletin, January 17, 1928
  4. Main Break Coats Street, Downtown Sidewalks and Trolley Tracks Covered With Ice, Source: Bulletin, January 3
  5. Promises Water Free From Odor, Murdoch Says All Objectionable Taste Will Be Gone Tomorrow, Source: Bulletin, January 16
  6. Typhoid Fever Being Routed, Source: Bulletin, January 17
  7. Chief Dunlap, Source: Bulletin, February 2


  1. Murdoch Favors Ely to Head Water Bureau, Backs Newark Engineer to Succeed Dunlap; Other Appointments Made, Source: Inquirer, February 8
  2. City Plans Crusade for Purer Waters, Plants Dumping Waste Into Schuylkill Will Be Prosecuted, State Aid to Be Asked as Pollution Survey Gets Under Way, Source: Inquirer, February 1
  3. Gates Are Closed at Conowingo Dam, Water From 14-Mile Lake Will Be Pouring Over Spillways Tonight, Phila. To Receive Electricity From Giant Plant Within Three Months, Source: Inquirer, January 17
  4. Murdoch Menaces Many Job Holders, Director Orders Elimination of All Unnecessary Posts in Public Works Department, Bars Political Influence, Source: Bulletin, February 7
  5. Murdoch Roll Cut Affected ‘Only 100’, Director Says Report of 450 Hit in Economy Move is ‘Gross Exaggeration’, ‘Only Cleared Up Lists’, Source: Ledger, February 9
  6. Water Main Breaks, Four Working at Excavation Seemed to Enjoy Drenching, Source: Inquirer, July 14
  7. Director Murdoch’s Plan, Source: Bulletin, February 8
  8. Ely is Made Chief of Water Bureau, Former City Employee Noted as an Engineer-Salary is $10,000, Takes New Post February 15, Source: Ledger, February 5


  1. Photo title: Water Main Break Floods Kensington Streets, Causing Damage Running Into Hundreds of Thousands, Source: Record, February [3]
  2. Article attached to above photo, Frankford Water Main Break Rages for 12 Hours; Causes Big Damage and Discomfort, City Bureau Finally Checks the Deluge After Millions of Tons Cascade Over Entire District, Reaching Seven Feet in Depth, Source: Record, February [3]
  3. Streets Flooded by Bursting Main, Water Column Shoots Up [to] P.R.R. Bridge in Jasper St. Near Erie Ave., Traffic Forced to Detour, Source: Ledger, February 2
  4. J.S. Ely Promises City Good Water, New Chief of Bureau Glad to Return to Philadelphia Where He Worked in 1902, Discusses His Problems, Source: Bulletin, February 20
  5. Ely Unable to Assume New Job at Present, Source: Record, March 16
  6. Water Chief Speeds Back to Hospital Here After Health Trip to Florida, Source: Ledger, March 27
  7. John Ely in Hospital in Serious Condition, Water Bureau Chief Met at Train by Ambulance on Return From Florida, Source: Inquirer, March 27


  1. Deadlock on Chief of Water Bureau, Murdoch-Van Loan Feud Blamed for Failure to Name Ely Successor, Mackey Favors Promoting Deputy, Is Belief, But Director is Adamant, Source: Inquirer, April 5
  2. Denies Friction in Cabinet, Nobody in Mind for Water Bureau Chief, Mackey Declares, Source: Bulletin, April 5
  3. Urge Quick Action to Purify River, Experts Plead for Passage of City Ordinance to Survey Schuylkill Pollution Sources, Held Up in Committee, Source: Bulletin, April 3
  4. Airs Water Plan for Philadelphia, Reading Councilman Suggests Building Sewer Drainage Canal, Source: Record, April 10
  5. Murdoch Calls Sewage Canal Plan Expensive, Cites Flaws in Reading Man’s Idea to Halt River Pollution, Action Urged by Moore, Source: Record, April 12
  6. Probe Schuylkill Water Pollution, City Solicitor Names Ladner Special Counsel for Survey-Selects Four Engineers, Includes Major Blue, Source: Bulletin, April 13
  7. Hayes Likely Water Chief, Designing Engineer of Bureau Reported Slated for Post, Source: Ledger, April 19


  1. Photo title: Big Tractor “Scratch-Cat” at Belmont Filter Plant Used in Cleaning The S[?], caption: Closeup of Scratch-Cat, the latest device for cleaning clogged filter beds…Source: Bulletin, March 20, 1928
  2. Article attached to above photo, Big ‘Scratch Cats’ Clean City Water, Huge Machines, Operated by Tractors, ‘Vacuum Clean’ Sand at Stations, Speed is New Factor, Source: Bulletin, March 20
  3. Photo title: Water Bureau Chief Back From Florida, caption: John S. Ely, prevented by illness from beginning his work in the Mackey administration…Source: Bulletin, March 27
    Article attached to above photo, Ely’s Condition Serious, City Water Bureau Head Spends Restful Night at Hospital, Source: Bulletin, March 27
  4. Ely Undergoes Operation, New Water Bureau Chief Delayed in Assuming Duties, Source: Ledger, February 15
  5. City Water Chief John S. Ely Dies After Operation, Newly Named Phila. Official Fails to Recover From Jaw Ailment, Appointed by Murdoch, Source: Record, March 31
  6. All Streams Near Phila. Polluted, Wetherill Says, Self-Respecting Fish Won’t Stay in Delaware, He Declares, Source: Ledger, February 1, 1928
  7. The Water Treaty, Source: Ledger, February 22


  1. Hayes is Named as Chief of the Bureau of Water, Source: Record, April 26
  2. City Picks Counsel to Aid Fight on River Pollution, G.C. Ladner to Sue Offenders Along Upper Schuylkill, Source: Ledger, April 14
  3. Pumps to Be Installed at Belmont Station, Source: Record, April 27
  4. Photo title: Water Main Break Floods Street, caption: Flooded section at 3rd St., below Federal after a water break…Source: Bulletin, April 21
  5. Article attached to above photo, Third St. Flooded, Main Break Below Federal Delays Early Trolley Service, Source: Bulletin, April 21
  6. One Hundred Years Ago, Source: Gazette, March 31, 1928
  7. Murdoch to Fire Veteran Official of Water Works, Dismissal of McCrudden May Reveal Inside Story of 1926 Breakdown, Charges Are Withheld, Source: Record, May 2
  8. Damages Against City for Water Main Break, Source: Record, April 20
  9. Better Guarantees for Highway Repair, Source: Inquirer, March 20
  10. Engineer Laid Off, McCrudden, in Charge of Water Distribution, Accused of Insubordination, Will Be Fired, Chief Says, Source: Ledger, May 2
  11. M’Crudden Surprised, Dismissed Engineer Says He Doesn’t Know “What It’s All About,” Source not known


  1. Murdoch Ignores Mayor in Urging Bill for Meters, Council Measure, Compelling Water Users to Install Meterage, Rouses Mackey’s Ire, Ordinance, Tabled Last Year, Is Revived at Behest of Firm Seeking Contract to Furnish Devices, Source: Inquirer, April 27, 1928
  2. Mayor Repudiates Water-Meter Bill, Strongly Opposes Mandatory Installation of Any Particular Make, Sponsor Still a Mystery, Source: Ledger, April 28
  3. Meter Bill His, Connell Asserts, Councilman Informs Mackey He Alone Introduced Ordinance, Absolves Murdoch, Source: Ledger, April 27
  4. For Water and Forests, Source: Bulletin, May 18
  5. City Puckers on Chlorine, Drinking Water Here Tastes of Chemical, Cam[?] [?]oosters Told, Source: Ledger, March 30


  1. Bureau Criticizes Water-Meter Idea, Council’s Specifications Require More or Less Than Standard, Research Group Says, Flaws Picked in Ordinance, Source not known, May 14, 1928
  2. Water Meter Act Finds No Sponsor, Mayor, Murdoch and Connell All Deny Sponsoring Measure, Source: Record, April 28
  3. Mayor Won’t Join in Water Dispute, Will Keep Hands Off Dismissal of Veteran Engineer by Director Murdoch, Source: Ledger, May 2
  4. Not Ousted Yet, M’Crudden Says, Murdoch Admits He Failed to Give Engineer Written Notice, Source: Ledger, May 3
  5. Engineer in Water Bureau Fights Against Dismissal, McCrudden Says He Will Insist on Civil Service Hearing, Source: Ledger, May 3
  6. Discharge of M’Crudden is Affirmed by Murdoch, Answer to Insubordination Charge Called Insufficient, Source: Ledger, no date given
  7. M’Crudden Prepares to Fight Dismissal, Murdoch Gives Engineer Five Days to Answer Charges, Source: Ledger, May 5
  8. Girard Ave. at 9th Flooded by 5 Water Main Breaks, Cellars Filled by Miniature Geysers-S. Howard St. Has Break, Source: Bulletin, May 3
  9. Lyons Lands Job in Water Bureau at $5000 Yearly, Engineer Who Was Under Fire in Sewer Scandal Wins Promotion, Other Changes Announced, Source: Record, May 18
  10. Pure Water, Source: Ledger, May 18, 1928


  1. Photo title: Fountain Spouts in Street, caption: School children playing around geyser at 9th and Moore Streets, where a 10-inch water main broke yesterday afternoon, Source: Ledger, May 9
  2. Article attached to above photo, Main Break Tosses Bricks High in Air, Impromptu Geyser at 9th and Moore Streets Rare Fun for Hundreds of Children, Cars and Autos “Ducked”, Source: Ledger, May 9
  3. The Right Way to Tackle Schuylkill Pollution, Source not known
  4. City, State Ask Court’s Aid to Purify Water, Charge Conshohocken Company With Polluting Schuylkill, Ignore County Lines, Source: Ledger, May 17
  5. Water Improving, Gadsden Declares, C. of C. Head Asserts Purity of Delaware River Is Increasing, Puts Swaab on Committee, Source: Ledger, May 21
  6. Battle O’Annex Breaks Out Anew, “You Must Move,” Says Mr. Murdoch; “We Can’t,” Replies Mr. Neeld, And So The Fight is Raging, Source: Ledger, June 1


  1. Photo title: Water Main Break Sends Torrent Into Street, caption: Two views of the break in a 36-inch water main on Thompson St. near 29th…Source: Bulletin, May 30, 1928
  2. Article attached to above photo, Water Main Break Floods 8 Blocks, Thompson St. at 29th Turned Into Torrent-Many Cellars Filled-Reading Trains Halted, Geyser Strikes Windows, Source: Bulletin, May 30, 1928
  3. Murdoch Assigns Quarters, Source: Record, May 22
  4. Three in One Day, Source: Ledger, May 28, 1928
  5. State Refuses Aid in City Water Drive, Board Also Accuses Phila. Of Contributing to Pollution, Source: Ledger, June 3


  1. Why Should the State Protect Pollution of the Schuylkill? Source: Record, June 4, 1928
  2. Apathy of State Board on Water Pollution Scored, More Co-operation Given Schuylkill’s Defilers Than to City, Says Ladner, Pledges Fight for River, Source: Record, June 4
  3. An Ungracious Reply, Source: Bulletin, June 4, 1928
  4. Gas Main Breaks; Hundreds Routed, Big Truck Makes 10-Foot Cave-in on Passyunk Avenue Near 7th and Carpenter, Many Homeless an Hour, Source: Ledger, May 29


  1. Two Questions, Source: Ledger, June 5
  2. Angler Denounces State Water Body, Calls Refusal to Aid City’s Fight on Pollution “High-Handed,” Urges Action by Governor, Source: Ledger, June 5, 1928
  3. The Peril to Health From the Polluted Schuylkill, Source: Record, June 5
  4. 2 Water Main Breaks Flood Cellars Near Eighth and Walnut, Traffic Blocked When Flow Turns Highways Into Brooks a Foot Deep, Source: Inquirer, May [?]
  5. Official Dispute Over Schuylkill Pollution, Source: Inquirer, June 5, 1928
  6. Fisher Will Help Purify Schuylkill, Stands With Baldrige Behind Phila.’s Drive, Ladner Tells Kiwanis, Source: Ledger, June 5
  7. Why is This? Source: Ledger, June 5, 1928


  1. Up-State Towns and Mills Poison Schuylkill Water, Pouring Filth in River, Philadelphia Is Put to Enormous Expense Making It Fit for Drinking by Careful Filtration, Sanitary Board Refuses to Act, Source: Record, June 10, 1928
  2. Sewage and Water, Source: Ledger, June 18
  3. Fight for Pure Water Continues, Source: Daily News, June 20
  4. What Philadelphia is Doing! Source: Record, June 28
  5. Information Wanted, Source: Ledger, June 8
  6. Denounces Water Waste, Opening of Hydrants Causes Serious Fire Menace, Chief Says, Source: Bulletin, July 21


  1. Men and Things, Suburban Preparations to Provide Adequate Water Supply for the Future Are an Example to Philadelphia, Source: Bulletin, June 21, 1928
  2. Main Burst Floods West Phila. Block, Paving at 52nd and Locust Sts. Wrenched Away as Repairmen Fight Flow, Source: Ledger, June 5
  3. Water Shortage Stirs Complaints, Opening of Fireplugs Blamed by Hayes for Slackening of Supply, Source: Ledger, July 21
  4. The Waste of Water, Source: Bulletin, July 2
  5. Cave-in Near Broad St. Reveals Hidden Spring, Traffic Halted on Callowhill Street Below 15th by Miniature Chasm, Source: Inquirer, July 19
  6. Would Oust Water Board, Head of Izaak Walton League Calls Policy ‘High Handed’, Source: Bulletin, June 5


  1. Charge Murdoch Shows Favoritism, Amendment Filed to Injunction Suit Over Contract at Lardner’s Point, Director Resents Action, Source: Bulletin, July 28
  2. Taxpayer Starts Suit in Bid Fight, Charges Attempt to Prevent Competition in Pumping Station Contract, Opposes Change in Plans, Source: Ledger, July 29
  3. River Pollution is Cited, War Department Data Submitted to Special Counsel for City, Source: Ledger, June 9
  4. Shortage of Water Caused in Central City by Heat Wave, 450 Police Sent Into S. Phila. To Halt Opening of Hydrants, Hose and Lawn Sprinklers Also Banned as Downtown Buildings Face Hazard, Source: Inquirer, August [?]
  5. Water Shortage Blamed on Waste, Bureau Chief Says Opening of Fireplugs Makes Pressure Fall in South Phila., Source: Ledger, August 11
  6. Water Leak Undermines Foundation of Street, Source: Record, August 1


  1. Don’t Leave the Spigot Open, Source: Bulletin, August
  2. Wasting Water, Source: Record, August 17
  3. Bustleton Main Breaks, Several Blocks Flooded Near Grant and Bustleton Aves., Source: Bulletin, June 18
  4. Port Richmond Main Breaks, 100 Dwellings Without Water-Block Flooded, Source not known
  5. Street Showers During Warm Weather, Source: Inquirer, August 18
  6. German Engineers View Plants Here, Sea Captain Pilots Party of 30 on Inspection of Leading Industries, Go to Independence Hall, Source: Ledger, August 24
  7. Guarding the Fireplugs, Source: Inquirer, August 18
  8. Water Pipe Rivals Save Cash for City, Bidders on One Job Ask $40,000 Less When Director Ends 20-Year Monopoly, Competition Now Prevails, Source: Ledger, August 22
  9. National Water Works Incorporated in Delaware, Source: Ledger, September 1


  1. Men and Things, Sanitary Water Board Survey Shows Thirty Plants That Let Industrial Waste Flow Into Philadelphia Drinking Water, Source: Bulletin, October 24
  2. Court Grants Curb on River Pollution, Chemical Company Enjoined From Permitting Flow of Waste Into Schuylkill, Source: Inquirer, October 19
  3. Lancaster Ave. at 52nd St. Shut Off as Main Breaks, Closed to Traffic Out to 54th Street After Paving is Raised, Source: Ledger, August 18
  4. Water Spouts 20 Feet, Main Breaks at Marshall and Noble Sts.-Paving Stones Sink, Source: Bulletin, July 4
  5. Bids Opened for 3 Huge Water Mains, City to Supply Section East of the Schuylkill From Torresdale Plant, Source: Ledger, November 8



  1. Schuylkill Report Tabled by Mayor, Suggestion That City Sue Firms for Polluting River Pigeonholed, Source: Ledger, March 17
  2. Raging Waters of Schuylkill Engulf Homes, 20 Collegeville Cottages Submerged; Lowland Residents Moving, Thaw Frees Torrent; River Rises 14 Feet, Pumping Stations Closed, Roads Inundated 4 Feet as Creeks Leave Banks, Source: Ledger, February 27
  3. Girard’s Talk of the Day, Source: Inquirer, March 5


  1. Water Bureau Aides Must Pay Income Tax, Revenue Department Puts City Agency on Par With Public Service Corporation, Source: Inquirer, March 5
  2. Ladner Jabs Board on River Pollution, Asks Alba B. Johnson to Explain Statement Citing Pacts to End Dumping, Source: Inquirer, March 3
  3. When a City’s Not a City, Source: Bulletin, March 6
  4. Councilmen Favor Pure Water Bill, Five Members Join Civic Organization Heads in Schyulkill Anti-Pollution Measure, Has Hearing March 26, Source: Bulletin, March 6
  5. Our Right to Clean Water, Source: Bulletin, March 4
  6. Asserts Pollution Endangers Health, G.C. Ladner, in Charge of Pure Water Prosecutions, Supports McGrossin Bill, ‘City Should Have Power’, Source: Bulletin, March 5
  7. Girard’s Talk of the Day, Source: Inquirer, March 11
    3 Phila. Senators Back Water Bill, Woodward, Aron and M’Crossin Declare for Schuylkill Anti-Pollution Measure, Seek Daix’s Support, Source: Bulletin, March 8
  8. Main Break Floods Tracks, Rails in Reading Subway from 15th to 17th St. Inundated, Source: Bulletin, March 14


  1. City Hall Annex Filling Gradually, New Building About 65 Per Cent Occupied-Work of Moving Departments Is Slow, Nine Still to Go, Source not known


  1. Cartoon, caption: “Now, Now! Boys Will Be Boys, You Know!” [Industrial river pollution] Source: Record, March 18, 1929
  2. Philadelphians Can Get Clean Water If They Want It, Source: Record, March 18, 1929
  3. Water Famine Faces Residents in W. Torresdale, Source: Record, March 14
  4. Get Water Wagon to Supply Homes, West Torresdale Residents Prepared If Artesian Well is Shut to Them, Source: Ledger, March 12
  5. Danger of Water Famine to West Torresdale Gone, Owner of Well Agrees Not to Shut Off Supply Pending Conference, Source: Ledger, March 15
  6. W. Chester Water Rate Up, Council Boosts Charge Ten Per Cent, First Time Since 1895, Source: Bulletin, March 14
  7. $75,000 Going on Pumping Station, Source: Ledger, March 5


  1. To Resume Water Probe, Council Law Committee Also Will Consider $845,000 Sesqui Bills, Source: Bulletin, March 9
  2. Bidders to Testify in Contract Probe, Council Committee Orders Witnesses Subpenaed for Continued Water Bureau Hearing, Roper Offers Witnesses, Source: Ledger, March 15
  3. Girard’s Talk, Source: Inquirer, March 19
  4. Curious Pleading, Source: Bulletin, March 18, 1929
  5. Clean Water Rights, Correspondent Declares the Condition of Pennsylvania Watersheds Is Disgraceful, Source: Bulletin, March 21
  6. Clean Drinking Water, Source: Bulletin, March 20, 1929
  7. P.R.T. Board Rubber Stamp[?] Council Hears [?], Run by Mitten-Managed Executive Body, City’s Representatives Say, Union Bank Head Director, Refuses to Answer Bootleg Alliance Charges on Roper’s Demand, Source: Record, March 22


  1. An Unworthy Plea, Source: Bulletin, March 30, 1929
  2. Silt and Waste Clog Schuylkill, Engineer’s Trip Shows Cities From Manayunk Up are Polluting Stream, Fear Worse Condition, Source: Bulletin, March 29
  3. Water Board Is Ordered to Halt Pollution, ‘Clean Schuylkill’ Drive Gets New Impetus From Fisher, Appel Attacks Bill, Legislative Probe Preferable to McCrossin Measure, Health Head Says, Source: Record, April 1
  4. Polluted Water, Source: Evening Telegraph, April 3, 1929
  5. Abate This Nauseous Water Nuisance, Source: Inquirer, April 6, 1929


  1. Enough of Parleys-Let the Law Deal With Polluters! Source: Record, April 1, 1929
  2. River Polluters Called Selfish, Clearing Streams of Waste Would Not Impair Business, Ladner Tells Senators at Hearing, Show Schuylkill Tests, Source: Bulletin, April 2
  3. $17,000,000 Added to Water Program, State Approves Plans for Sewage Disposal in Move to Purify Schuylkill, 2-Year Extension Granted, Source: Ledger, April 10
  4. Parley on River Pollution To[day], City and State Officials Confer on Schuylkill Sewage Measure, Source: Record, April 11


  1. [?] About That Clean Water? Source: Bulletin, April 2
  2. Mackey Requests Water Conference, Wants State Board’s Views on Program to End Pollution of Rivers, Source: Inquirer, April 2
  3. Pure Water Plans, Source: Ledger, April 1
  4. Clean Water We Must Have, Source: Ledger, April 8
  5. Pledges $13,000,000 For Pure Water, Mayor Promises Sewage Disposal Work in Agreement With State Board on Pollution, See Rivers Clear by 1935, Source: Ledger, April 10
  6. Water, Source: Ledger, April 16
  7. Glug-Glug Water, Source: Record, April 18
  8. Water Main Geyser Floods House at 26th and Ridge, Stream Spurts Three-Stories High from Broken Pipe, Source: Bulletin, April 16


  1. Saving Face on Stream Pollution, Source: Inquirer, April 16
  2. New York to Drain Delaware Watershed, Source: Inquirer, April 16
  3. New Jersey Objects, Source: Ledger, April 19
  4. Philadelphia’s Water Supply, Source: Ledger, April 20
  5. A Defective Contract Reform Bill, Source: Inquirer, May 1
  6. A New Water Project, Source: Ledger, May 8
  7. Water to Be Rid Of Gas Shortly, Source: Record, April 5


  1. Ten-Mile Tunnel For Water Urged, $10,000,000 Project Proposed to Bring Upper Delaware River Supply to West Philadelphia, Ample for Next 50 Years, Source: Ledger, May 8, 1929
  2. Photo attached to above article, title: Route of Proposed Water Tunnel, caption: This map shows the direction of the ten-mile tunnel proposed by Director Murdoch…Source: Ledger, May 8, 1929
  3. 10-Mile Tunnel for West Phila. Water Planned, New Delaware Source Proposed as Schuylkill Supply Nears Limit, $9,000,000 Cost Seen, Source: Ledger, May 7
  4. Roper Plays Solo in Water Probe, Deserted by Others on Committee He Continues Work by Himself, Source: Record, May 8
  5. May Kill Pollution Bill in Committee, Ladner Sure Pure Streams Measure Would be Passed if Reported Out, Manufacturers Rap Plan, Source not known
  6. Davis and Hughes Agree N.Y. Could Divert Delaware, Former Secretary of State Says Court Would Provide Compensation, Source: Record, April 18
  7. Bad Water, Bitter Thoughts, Source: Record, no date given


  1. Senators Flayed For Opposition to Pure Water Bill, Conservation League Head Calls for Defeat of Krause and Frazier, Mackey Also is Scored, Source: Record, May 8
  2. Water Lines Break in Germantown, Streets Flooded and Supply is Cut Off From Two Sections, Source: Ledger, April 19
  3. Schuylkill River Dredging to Start, Obstructions to Rowing Will Be Removed at Boathouse Row, Work Commences Today to Clean Out Mud Flats in Vicinity, Source: Ledger, April 19
  4. N.J. to Test Right of N.Y. to Divert Delaware Water, Attorney General Plans Immediate Appeal to U.S. Supreme Court, Source: Bulletin, April 18
  5. Main Leak Causes Cave-in, Paving Between Tracks Undermined at 2nd and Reed Streets, Source: Ledger, April 17
  6. Schuylkill Water is Needed, Source: Ledger, May 8
  7. Says State Water Board is ‘On Trial’, G.C. Ladner Tells Conservation Council Sanitary Body Defended Stream Polluters, Hits Forest Loan’s Foes, Source: Bulletin, May 21
  8. Phila. Safeguards Its Water Supply, Mayor Orders Ashton to Confer With State Law Chief on Delaware River pact, Lawsuit Will Be Started, Source: Ledger, May 22
  9. Springfield Water Co. in Merger, Source: Bulletin, May 10


  1. Reading Formulates Plan to Reclaim Schuylkill For Pure Water Supply, Proposes Commission to Save River Into Which It Is Estimated $1,00,000 Worth of Usable Coal Waste Is Now Dumped and Which is Cause of Pollution, Source: Record, May 9
  2. Plant Burns; Water Fails, 300 Workers Lose Jobs by Fire; 6-Inch Main Assailed, Source: Ledger, May 21
  3. Men and Things, City of Philadelphia’s Action Against Expropriation of Perkiomen Water is Logical Step to Protect City’s Rights in the Flow of the Schuylkill, Source: Bulletin, May 18, 1929
  4. Water for Philadelphia, Source: Providence Journal, no date given
  5. N.J. Granted Right to Sue in Delaware Water Case, Also May Act to Bar Dumping of Garbage, Source: Ledger, May 21


  1. Million Saved City by Water Survey, Discovery of More Than 1000 Leaks Stops Daily Waste of 50,000,000 Gallons, Source: Ledger, May 24
  2. Present Status of the Compact on Delaware Water, Philadelphia Must Protect Its Rights in Tri-State Dispute, Source: Ledger, May 25
    Water Merger Unopposed, Phila. To Sell Girard Company in Schuylkill County, Source not known, April 17
  3. Delaware River Water, Source: Ledger, May 22, 1929
  4. $17,000,000 Grant Asked by Murdoch in Electoral Loan, Requests Exceed $75,000,000 With 3 Departments Unlisted, Total Expected to Reach $90,000,000 or $40,000,000 Above Limit Set, Source: Inquirer, May 22, 1929


  1. Finds Phila. Lags in Hospital Care, Health Expert Says 500 Beds Are Lacking for Tuberculosis Patients, Source: Ledger, June 4
  2. Stopping Water Leaks, Source: Ledger, May 25
  3. Pennsylvania’s Stake in the Delaware, Source: Record, May 22
  4. New Jersey’s Position on Delaware Water, Source: Ledger, May 25
  5. Three States, a River, and the Supreme Court, Source: Record, May 14
  6. Urges $25,000,000 of Loan for Water, Source: Bulletin, no date given


  1. Expert Warns City It Must Purify Water, Mayor Hears Emerson Say Philadelphia is Taking ‘Terrible Chance’, Urges Prompt Action, Pictures Thousands Afflicted by Disease If Steps Are Not Taken Now, Source: Record, June 5
  2. City Has Pure Water Supply, Mayor Insists, All Health Precautions Taken, Mackey Answers Dr. Emerson, ‘Good for Batteries’ Source: Record, June 1
  3. Owen Roberts Appointed Counsel in Water Fight, Will Represent Penna. Against New York and New York City, Source: Ledger, June 5
  4. Philadelphia’s Water Peril, Source: Bulletin, June 6
  5. Our Water and Milk, Source: Ledger, June 6
  6. A Pure Water Supply, Source: Ledger, June 6
  7. Defending City Water, Source: Ledger, June 19


  1. Experts Warn of Perils From Water Pollution, Source: Record, June 5, 1929
  2. Philadelphia’s Interest in Delaware Water, Source: Inquirer, May 22
    City Called Chief Source of Pollution of Delaware River, State Board Divides Blame Between Philadelphia and Suburbs, Evil Being Curbed, Source: Record, June 14
  3. City Water Supply Defended by Mayor, Dr. Emerson’s Criticisms Declared to Be Based Upon Incomplete Date, Director Murdoch Answers in Detail Charges Made by Health Expert, Source not known, June 12, 1929
  4. The City’s Water Supply, Source: Ledger, June 13


  1. Photo title: Huge Conduit, Seven Miles Long, Being Built in.... [See 2004.014.0361-1 for continuation of title]. Caption: The 93-inch main of the New Water Supply Line from the Torresdale filtration plant…Source: Bulletin, June 10, 1929 [135 kb]
  2. All Water in Homes Here Filtered, Murdoch Says; Backed by Mayor, Sixteen Typhoid Cases in 2,200,000 Population Cited as Proof of Pure Supply-Mayor Calls Charge of Dr. Emerson Cruel, Source: Ledger, June 12
  3. Diligence in River Purification, Source: Bulletin, June 17
  4. Hayes, Back From Europe, Defends City Water, Bureau Chief Says Costs here Are Less Than in Large Cities Abroad, Source: Ledger, June 20
  5. New Water Purifier, Source not known


  1. Photo title: ...Northeast to Safeguard Municipal Water Service. Caption: How the “Big Ditch” in the Northeast Looks-The pipes are placed so…Source: Bulletin, June 10, 1929 [135 kb]
  2. Drawing, caption: Diagram Shows Location of New Pipe Line, Costing $1,600,000 now under construction…Source: Bulletin, June 10, 1929
  3. Water, Source: Record, June 29
  4. Mackey Reviews 18 Months of Work on City Projects, Says Water Works Are in Best Condition-Points to Low Death Rate, Source: Bulletin, June 24
  5. Water Conservation, Source: Record, June 24
  6. Drowns in Shallow Pool, Pumping Station Employee Believed Stunned by Fall Into Basin, Source: Ledger, June 26


  1. Photo title: Heat and Dry Spell Make It Possible to Walk Across the Schuylkill River Bed at Manayunk Without Wetting One’s Shoes, caption: View Above Green Lane Bridge…Source: Bulletin, June 20, 1929
    Schuylkill Bed ‘Dry’ For a Mile, One Can Walk Across It in Section of Manayunk Without Wetting Shoes, ‘Channel’ is Hand Deep, Source: Bulletin, June 20
  2. Dead Fish Plague Hits Torresdale, Film of Oil on River Believed Responsible for ‘Intolerable’ Littering of Shores, Residents Fell Odors, Source: Bulletin, June 26
  3. Photo title: River at Torresdale, caption: Hundreds of Herring Washed Ashore at the Biddle estate at Torresdale…Source: Bulletin, June 26


  1. Photo title: Thousands of Dead Fishes Believed to [?], caption: Victims of Heavy Film of Oil which coats the river for many miles…Source: Bulletin, June 26
  2. Schuylkill Cities To Unite in Fight Against Pollution, Plans for Creation of River Board Outlined at Meeting Here, Mayor Asked to Aid, Source: Record, June 28
  3. May Lay Dead Fish Plague to Factory, Say State’s Delaware Pollution Probe Will Show Industrial Waste or Sewage to Blame, Oil, Scum a Coincidence, Source: Bulletin, July 2
  4. A Schuylkill River Board, Source: Bulletin, July [11]
  5. Take Real Action to Purify River, 15 Organizations at Mayor’s Suggestion, to Call Meeting With State Expert, Source: Ledger, July 2
  6. Seek to End Pollution, Chestnut Hill Association Asks Mayor to Protect Water Supply, Source: Inquirer, July 2
  7. Says Water is Cheap, Murdoch Claims Phila. Has Lowest Rate in America, Source: Inquirer, June 12


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